FAO Forestry Papers

The FAO Forestry Paper series is FAO’s main series in forestry. Most volumes are published in several languages. 

FAO Forestry Papers can be downloaded free of charge. Print copies can be purchased through the FAO Sales Catalogue.  In addition, readers in developing countries can request up to five print publications free of charge. Requests should be directed to: FO-publications@fao.org.

When a paper is not available in the language requested, the paper will be shown in other available languages.

Most recent

FAO Forestry Paper 182: Guide to the classical biological control of insect pests in planted and natural forests
 A great deal of knowledge on classical biological control has been accumulated worldwide in the last few decades. This publication, which was written by a team of experts, distils that information in a clear, concise guide aimed at helping forest-health practitioners and forest managers – especially in developing countries – to implement successful classical biological control programmes. 

FAO Forestry Paper 181: Climate change for forest policy-makers
This document is published as part of the effort by the Forestry Department of FAO to assist countries in their efforts to address policy issues related to forests and climate change by integrating climate change considerations into national forest-related policies and actions. It follows a specific request by the FAO Committee on Forests to update the 2011 edition of Climate Change for Forest Policy-Makers. 

FAO Forestry Paper 180: Making forest concessions in the tropics work to achieve the 2030 Agenda: Voluntary Guidelines
The importance of forests in helping to achieve global sustainable development has been largely acknowledged by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement. In order to ensure that forests deliver their socio-economic and environmental benefits, it is crucial to expand sustainable forest management (SFM) based on the best available practices. Although some progress towards SFM has been noted, the global proportion of land area covered by forests continues to decline.

2011 - 2018

FAO Forestry Paper 179: National socioeconomic surveys in forestry 24 November 2016 Adequate information on the socioeconomic contributions of forests to household welfare, livelihoods and poverty reduction is key to national sustainable development in the post-2015 agenda. While awareness is growing regarding the multiple roles of forests in these aspects of sustainable development, the lack of systematic data in many countries limits an evidence-based demonstration of this. Lacking reliable information, forests and forestry are not always adequately considered in the development of national policies. This sourcebook is intended to help improve data collection on aspects of forests relating to household welfare and livelihoods. It offers practical guidance and measurement tools that can be included in existing social or socioeconomic surveys undertaken by a country’s national statistical office, or in independent national surveys. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 178: Guidelines on urban and peri-urban forestry 24 October 2016 These guidelines are the result a consultative process that involved a large number of practitioners from both developed and developing countries. Two meetings were held in Glasgow and Delhi and a tentative outline was agreed upon. The guidelines are intended to provide a reference framework for decision makers and planners to adequately plan, design and manage the forest and trees in and around their cities. The document will include a general overview of the role of urban and peri-urban forests (UPF) towards a sustainable urban development, as well as specific chapters recommending policy and management actions to be taken to maximize UPF contribution in addressing both global and local challenges. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 177: Forestry for a low-carbon future 1 August 2016 Following the introduction, Chapter 2 provides an overview of mitigation in the forest sector, addressing the handling of forests under UNFCCC. Chapters 3 to 5 focus on forest-based mitigation options – afforestation, reforestation, REDD+ and forest management – and Chapters 6 and 7 focus on wood-product based options – wood energy and green building and furnishing. The publication describes these activities in the context of UNFCCC rules, assessing their mitigation potential and economic attractiveness as well as opportunities and challenges for implementation. Chapter 8 discusses the different considerations involved in choosing the right mix of options as well as some of the instruments and means for implementation. Chapter 8 also highlights the co-benefits generated by forest-based mitigation and emphasizes that economic assessment of mitigation options needs to take these benefits into account. The concluding chapter assesses national commitments under UNFCCC involving forest mitigation and summarizes the challenges and opportunities. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 176: Forty years of community-based forestry 23 February 2016 Since the 1970s and 1980s, community-based forestry has grown in popularity, based on the concept that local communities, when granted sufficient property rights over local forest commons, can organize autonomously and develop local institutions to regulate the use of natural resources and manage them sustainably. Over time, various forms of community-based forestry have evolved in different countries, but all have at their heart the notion of some level of participation by smallholders and community groups in planning and implementation. This publication is FAO’s first comprehensive look at the impact of community-based forestry since previous reviews in 1991 and 2001. It considers both collaborative regimes (forestry practised on land with formal communal tenure requiring collective action) and smallholder forestry (on land that is generally privately owned). The publication examines the extent of community-based forestry globally and regionally and assesses its effectiveness in delivering on key biophysical and socioeconomic outcomes, i.e. moving towards sustainable forest management and improving local livelihoods. The report is targeted at policy-makers, practitioners, researchers, communities and civil society. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 175: Global guidelines for the restoration of degraded forests and landscapes in drylands 19 October 2015 These guidelines , published in collaboration with the Turkish Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs and the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency, will support urgently needed restoration efforts in the world’s drylands. Drylands cover nearly half of the earth’s land surface and are home to one-third of the global population. The first of their kind, the guidelines target policymakers and other decision-makers, and practitioners. They present the essential components for designing, implementing and sustaining restoration initiatives and outline a range of actions. These include on-the-ground activities such as habitat protection, assisted natural regeneration, sand-dune stabilization and planting, as well as policy improvements, financial incentives, capacity development, and continuous monitoring and learning. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 174: Towards effective national forest funds 7 May 2015 National forest funds (NFFs), which channel about US$12-13 billion in developing countries, have become an important institutional mechanism for improving the financial architecture and governance of forestry in recent years. They are already in operation in about 55 countries and more are in preparation. Despite this growing interest, there is little understanding of how NFFs work or how they could be better designed and operated. This publication addresses the information gap. Based on a detailed analysis of how different NFFs actually operate and what constraints they face, it endeavours to assist policymakers and forest practitioners in establishing and managing such funds effectively. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 173: Multiple-use forest management in the humid tropics 13 September 2013 The multiple-value of forests has long been appreciated and used by forest-dependent people in the tropics. Explicitly managing for some or all of these values - multiple-use forest management - is stipulated in the laws of many countries, but its formal implementation in the tropics is thought to be rare. This paper reports on three regional assessments carried out to identify and draw lessons from on-the-ground initiatives in the Amazon Basin, the Congo Basin and Southeast Asia. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 172: Climate change guidelines for forest managers 12 September 2013 The effects of climate change and climate variability on forest ecosystems are evident around the world and further impacts are unavoidable, at least in the short to medium term. Addressing the challenges posed by climate change will require adjustments to forest policies, management plans and practices. These guidelines have been prepared to assist forest managers to better assess and respond to climate change challenges and opportunities at the forest management unit level. The actions they propose are relevant to all kinds of forest managers – such as individual forest owners, private forest enterprises, public-sector agencies, indigenous groups and community forest organizations. They are applicable in all forest types and regions and for all management objectives. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 171: Edible insects - Future prospects for food and feed security 13 May 2013 This publication describes the contribution of insects to food security. It shows the many traditional and potential new uses of insects for direct human consumption and the opportunities for and constraints to farming them for food and feed. It examines the body of research on issues such as insect nutrition and food safety, the use of insects as animal feed, and the processing and preservation of insects and their products. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 170: Sustainable management of Pinus radiata plantations 10 May 2013 Pinus radiata (radiata pine) is a versatile, fast-growing, medium-density softwood, suitable for a wide range of end-uses. Its silviculture is highly developed, and is built on a firm foundation of over a century of research, observation and practice. Radiata pine is often considered a model for growers of other plantation species. The focus of this book is on the principles and practices of growing radiata pine sustainably. It also looks ahead to emerging challenges facing radiata pine plantation management, such as the effects of climate change, new diseases and other threats, and meeting changing product needs and societal demands. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 169: Global forest land-use change 1990-2005 14 December 2012 This report presents the key findings on forest land use and land-use change between 1990 and 2005 from FAO’s 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA 2010) Remote Sensing Survey. This survey was the result of a partnership between FAO, countries and the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC). It is the first report of its kind to present systematic estimates of global forest land use and change. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 168: Soil carbon monitoring using surveys and modelling 15 June 2012 Forest soils constitute a large pool of carbon and releases of carbon from this pool, caused by deforestation and forest degradation, may significantly increase the concentration of greenhouse gases. This publication describes the application of survey- and modelling-based methods for monitoring soil organic carbon stock and its changes on a national scale in the United Republic of Tanzania. The report presents i) a design of the first inventory of soil organic carbon, including discussion on factors that affect the reliability of carbon stock estimates; and ii) a design of a modelling-based approach, including links to national forest inventory data and discussion on alternative soil organic carbon models. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 167: Wildlife in a changing climate 5 December 2011 Wildlife in a Changing Climate foresees that the rate of loss of wild animal species will be accelerated by climate change unless urgent measures are taken. Particularly at risk are wildlife and ecosystems in coastal and mountain areas, while Africa, where a mean temperature rise of 3-4 °C is expected by the end of the century, is one of the world’s most vulnerable regions. Using case studies, the report puts forward a series of responsive measures to mitigate the impact of climate change. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 166: Community-based fire management: A review 2 November 2011 Globally, people cause most wildfires. Involving local communities in fire management practices like prevention, suppression and restoration is therefor a logical approach. The new FAO publication “Community-based fire management- A review”, highlights the state of the art in community-based fire management, redefines the concept, reviews case studies and reflects on related policy and legal frameworks. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 165: Reforming forest tenure 13 July 2011 Secure tenure is an important prerequisite for sustainable forest management. More diversified tenure systems could provide a basis for improving forest management and local livelihoods, particularly where the State has insufficient capacity to manage forests. In the past decade many countries have initiated efforts to reform their tenure arrangements for forests and forest land, devolving some degree of access and management from the State to others, mainly households, private companies and communities. This publication provides practical guidance for policy-makers and others concerned with addressing forest tenure reform. Drawing from many sources, including forest tenure assessments carried out by FAO in Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America and Central Asia, it deduces lessons about what works and what does not, and why. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 164: Guide to implementation of phytosanitary standards in forestry 29 March 2011 This guide, produced by an international group of scientists, phytosanitary authorities, forest experts and industry representatives and reviewed by more than 100 specialists from 46 countries, provides easy-to-understand information on how good forest management practices and well implemented phytosanitary standards can minimize pest spread and facilitate safe trade. The guide will be of vital interest to people involved in nursery activities, planting, managing, harvesting, manufacturing, trading and transporting forest products. It will also benefit forest policy-makers, planners, managers and educators, particularly in developing countries. [more]



The following key is used to indicate in which language/s the paper has been published. 

Ar – Arabic             E – English    F – French S – Spanish
C – Chinese  I – Italian P – Portuguese    R – Russian
138 FAO Meeting on Public Policies Affecting Forest Fires 1998, (E F S) 
137/2 Forestry policies in the Caribbean – Volume 2: Reports of 28 selected countries and territories, 1998 (E)
137/1 Forestry policies in the Caribbean – Volume 1: Proceedings of the Expert Consultation, 1998 (E)
136 Managing forests as common property, 1998 (E)
135 Guidelines for the management of tropical forests – 1. The production of wood, 1998 (E S)
134 Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests – A primer, 1997 (E)
133 Forest codes of practice – Contributing to environmentally sound forest operations, 1996 (E)
132 Forestry policies of selected countries in Africa, 1996 (E F)
131 Ecología y enseñanza rural – Nociones ambientales básicas para profesores rurales y extensionistas, 1996 (S)
130 Forest resources assessment 1990 – Survey of tropical forest cover and study of change processes, 1996 (E)
129 Environmental impact assessment and environmental auditing in the pulp and paper industry, 1996 (E)
128 Forest resources assessment 1990 – Tropical forest plantation resources, 1995 (E)
127 Valuing forests: context, issues and guidelines, 1995 (E F S) 
126 Climate change, forests and forest management – An overview (E F S)
125 Forest products prices 1973-1992, 1995 (E F S)
124 Forest resources assessment 1990 - Global synthesis (E F S)
123 Forestry education – New trends and prospects, 1994 (E F S)
122 Readings in sustainable forest management, 1994 (E F S)
121 Ecology and rural education, 1995 (F S) 
120 Decline and dieback of trees and forests – A global overview, 1994 (E)
119 Number not assigned
118 Biotechnology in forest tree improvement, 1994 (E)
117 Mangrove forest management guidelines, 1994 (E S)
116 Les panneaux à base de bois, 1993 (F)
115 Forestry policies of selected countries in Asia and the Pacific, 1993 (E)
114 Assessing forestry project impacts: issues and strategies, 1993 (E F S)
113 Ex situ storage of seeds, pollen and in vitro cultures of perennial woody plant species, 1993 (E)
112 Forest resources assessment 1990 – Tropical countries, 1993 (E F S)
111 Forestry policies in the Near East region – Analysis and synthesis, 1993 (E)
110 Proceedings of the Meeting of Experts on Forestry Research, 1993 (E F S)
109 Directory of forestry research organizations, 1993 (E)
108 A decade of wood energy activities within the Nairobi Programme of Action, 1993 (E)
107 Conservation of genetic resources in tropical forest management - principles and concepts, 1993 (E F S)
106 Economic assessment of forestry project impacts, 1992 (E F)
105 Compendium of pulp and paper training and research institutions, 1992 (E)
104 Forest products prices 1971-1990, 1992 (E F S)
103 Mixed and pure forest plantations in the tropics and subtropics, 1992 (E F S)
102 Research management in forestry, 1992 (E F S)
101 Management and conservation of closed forests in tropical America, 1993 (E F P S)
100 Introduction to ergonomics in forestry in developing countries, 1992 (E F S I)
99 Cost control in forest harvesting and road construction, 1992 (E)
98 Timber plantations in humid tropics of Africa, 1993 (E F)

97  Non wood forest products: the way ahead, 1991 (E F S)


The following key is used to indicate in which language/s the paper has been published. 

Ar – Arabic             E – English    F – French S – Spanish
C – Chinese  I – Italian P – Portuguese    R – Russian
96 Planning and managing forestry research: guidelines for managers, 1990 (E)
95 Forest products prices 1969-1988, 1990 (E F S)
94 Manual on sawmill operational maintenance,1990 (E)
93 Energy conservation in the mechanical forest industries, 1990 (E S)
92 Forestry policies in Europe – An analysis, 1989 (E)
91 Design manual on basic wood harvesting technology, 1989 (E F S) (Published only as FAO Training Series, No. 18)
90 Forestry and food security, 1989 (Ar F E S)
89 Review of forest management systems of tropical Asia, 1989 (E)
88 Management of tropical moist forests in Africa, 1989 (E F P)
87 Small scale harvesting operations of wood and non wood forest products involving rural people, 1988 (E F S)
86 Forestry policies in Europe, 1988 (E)
85 Forestry extension curricula, 1988 (E F S)
84 Forest products: World outlook projections – Product and country tables 1987-2000, 1988 (E F S)
83 Trade in forest products: a study of the barriers faced by the developing countries, 1988 (E)
82 Forest products prices 1967 1986, 1988 (E F S)
81 Guidelines for forest policy formulation, 1987 (C E)
80 Forestry extension methods, 1987 (E)
79 Small scale forest based processing enterprises, 1987 (E F S)
78 Appropriate wood harvesting in plantation forests, 1987 (E)
77 Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances, 1986 (E)
76 Wood preservation manual, 1986 (E)
75 Monitoring and evaluation of social forestry in India – an operational guide, 1986 (E)
74 Guidelines for forestry information processing, 1986 (E)
73 Forest products: world outlook projections 1985 2000, 1986 (E F S)
72 Wood gas as engine fuel, 1986 (E S)
71 World compendium of forestry and forest products research institutions, 1986 (E F S)
70 Wildland fire management terminology, 1986 (E F S)
69 Management of forest industries, 1986 (E)
68 Appropriate forest industries, 1986 (E)
67 Some medicinal forest plants of Africa and Latin America, 1986 (E)
66 Forestry extension organization, 1986 (C E S)
65 Forest legislation in selected African countries, 1986 (E F)
64 Tree growing by rural people, 1985 (Ar E F S) 
63 Industrial charcoal making, 1985 (E)
62 World list of institutions engaged in forestry and forest products research, 1985 (E F S) 
61 Forest products prices 1965 1984, 1985 (E F S)
60 Monitoring and evaluation of participatory forestry projects, 1985 (E F S)
59 The ecological effects of eucalyptus, 1985 (C E F S)
58 Sawdoctoring manual, 1985 (E S)
57 Coconut wood – Processing and use, 1985 (E S)
56 Breeding poplars for disease resistance, 1985 (E)
55 Intensive multiple use forest management in the tropics, 1985 (E F S)
54 Planificación del desarrollo forestal, 1984 (S)
53 Intensive multiple use forest management in Kerala, 1984 (E F S)
52/2 Field manual on cost estimation in sawmilling industries, 1985 (E)
52/1 Cost estimating in sawmilling industries: guidelines, 1984 (E)
51/1 Studies on the volume and yield of tropicaI forest stands – 1. Dry forest formations, 1989 (E F)
50/1 Changes in shifting cultivation in Africa – seven case studies, 1985 (E)
50 Changes in shifting cultivation in Africa, 1984 (E F)
49 Wood extraction with oxen and agricultural tractors, 1986 (E F S)
48 Land evaluation for forestry, 1984 (C E F S)
47 Technical forestry education – design and implementation, 1984 (E F S)
46 Forest products prices 1963 1982, 1983 (E F S)
45 Establishing pulp and paper mills, 1983 (E)
44/3 Food and fruit bearing forest species – 3. Examples from Latin America, 1986 (E S)
44/2 Food and fruit bearing forest species – 2. Examples from southeastern Asia, 1984 (E F S)
44/1 Food and fruit bearing forest species – 1. Examples from eastern Africa, 1983 (E F S)
43 Forest revenue systems in developing countries, 1983 (E F S)
42 Fuelwood supplies in the developing countries, 1983 (Ar E F S)
41 Simple technologies for charcoal making, 1983 (E F S)
40 Circular saw manual, 1983 (E)
39 Frame saw manual, 1982 (E)
38 Forest products prices 1962 1981, 1982 (E F S)
37 Conservation and development of tropical forest resources, 1982 (E F S)
36 Basic technology in forest operations, 1982 (E F S)
35 Forestry in China, 1982 (C E)
34 Fruit bearing forest trees, 1982 (E F S)
33 Logging of mountain forests, 1982 (E F S)
32 Classification and definitions of forest products, 1982 (Ar E F S)
31 Appropriate technology in forestry, 1982 (E)
30 Tropical forest resources, 1982 (E F S)
29 World forest products, demand and supply 1990 and 2000, 1982 (E F S)
28 Small and medium sawmills in developing countries, 1981 (E S)
27 Manual of forest inventory, 1981 (E F)
26 Forestry and rural development, 1981 (E F S)
25 Public forestry administrations in Latin America, 1981 (E)
24 Cable logging systems, 1981 (C E)
23 Forest products prices 1961 1980, 1981 (E F S)


The following key is used to indicate in which language/s the paper has been published. 

Ar – Arabic             E – English    F – French S – Spanish
C – Chinese  I – Italian P – Portuguese    R – Russian
22/2 Forest volume estimation and yield prediction – Vol. 2. Yield prediction, 1980 (C E F S)
22/1 Forest volume estimation and yield prediction - Vol. 1. Volume estimation, 1980 (C E F S)
21 Impact on soils of fast growing species in lowland humid tropics, 1980 (E F S)
20/2 A guide to forest seed handling, 1985 (E F S )
20 Forest tree improvement, 1985 (C E F S)
19/2  Pulping and paper making properties of fast growing plantation wood species – Vol. 2, 1980 (E)
19/1 Pulping and paper making properties of fast growing plantation wood species – Vol. 1, 1980 (E)
18 Forest products prices 1960 1978, 1980 (E F S)
17/2 Economic analysis of forestry projects: readings, 1980 (C E)
17/1 Economic analysis of forestry projects: case studies, 1979 (E S)
17 Economic analysis of forestry projects, 1979 (E F S)
16 China: integrated wood processing industries, 1979 (E F S)
15 AGRIS forestry – world catalogue of information and documentation services, 1979 (E F S)
14/1 Logging and transport in steep terrain, 1985 (E)
14 Mountain forest roads and harvesting, 1979 (E)
13 Forest products prices 1960 1977, 1979 (E F S)
12 China: forestry support for agriculture, 1978 (E)
11 Savanna afforestation in Africa, 1977 (E F)
10/2 Assessment of logging costs from forest inventories in the tropics – 2. Data collection and calculations, 1978 (E F S)
10/1 Assessment of logging costs from forest inventories in the tropics – 1. Principles and methodology, 1978 (E F S)
9 Wood chips – production, handling, transport, 1976 (C E S)
8 Establishment techniques for forest plantations, 1978 (Ar C E F S)
7 Forestry for local community development, 1978 (Ar E F S)
6 National parks planning, 1976 (E F)
5 The marketing of tropical wood in South America, 1976 (E S)
4/2 World pulp and paper demand, supply and trade – Vol. 2, 1977 (E F S)
4/1 World pulp and paper demand, supply and trade – Vol. 1, 1977 (E F S)
3/2 World list of forestry schools, 1986 (E F S)
3/1 World list of forestry schools, 1981 (E F S)
3 World list of forestry schools, 1977 (E F S)
2 Planning forest roads and harvesting systems, 1977 (E F S)

1 Forest utilization contracts on public land, 1977 (E F S)


last updated:  Monday, July 8, 2019