12 January 2010
According to the contract signed by Director Risto Päivinen with Europe Aid on 22 December 2010, EFI will host the newly established EU REDD Facility.
11 January 2010
The mild success of Cancun provided a great advance for the world’s foresters: global attention. But with this attention comes responsibility.
11 January 2010
The implementation of REDD Plus has often faced challenges from vested-interest industry lobbyists, an official said.
6 January 2010
Despite not agreeing legally binding commitments to reduce emissions, the Cancun conference does give more momentum to global, regional and local efforts to address climate change. As a result, the creation of incentives, penalties and trading arrangements in various forms in different markets becomes more likely.
6 January 2010
Although some environmental groups call it a distraction, one company believes carbon credits can help to save the rainforest
5 January 2010
The emergence of a Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism for protecting forests could introduce new risks for biodiversity by linking conservation finance to exotic financial derivatives, warn researchers writing in the journal Conservation Letters.
4 January 2010
The challenge to delegates at United Nations (UN) climate negotiations in Cancun, Mexico was to “Show Cancun Can!”. And for forests, Cancun did!
3 January 2011
Many trees are private goods. If you own some, you can probably do whatever you want with them. As a rational economic actor, you can respond effectively to incentives. If the price of wood goes up, you can decide to chop your trees down and sell them.
30 December 2010
Indonesia has chosen once of its largest and richest provinces to test efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by saving forest and peatlands, a key part of a $1 billion climate deal with Norway.
27 December 2010
Sharp divisions have emerged over the forestry agreement at Cancun which faces opposition from various indigenous people's networks around the world and forest rights campaigners in India. Ironically, projects on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus (REDD-plus) face opposition in Mexico itself.
27 December 2010
In sharp contrast to widespread predictions of failure, the recently concluded Cancun meetings captured a new spirit of thinking about sustainable development and efforts to combat climate change. This is how the game is changing: Officials, NGOs and experts meeting at Cancun are pushing a practical agenda forward.
21 December 2010
According to a global partnership of scientists, including the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), have drawn up a world map showing 1.5 billion hectares where there are opportunities to replant degraded or cleared forests.
21 December 2010
More than 30 areas that could be used for future carbon reduction programs in Indonesia was announced by the Forestry Ministry on Tuesday.
15 December 2010
An international deal on deforestation makes it ever more important to measure the Earth’s woodlands.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
No negotiations have taken place since the December 2010 newsletter. In June issue we will be back with a report on the Bonn Climate Talks leading up to COP 17.
The next scheduled UNFCCC negotiations in the lead up to COP 17 will take place from 6 - 17 June 2011 in Bonn, Germany
International Year of Forests, 2011
1 January-31 December 2011
UN General Assembly has designated 2011 as International Year of Forests. The secretariat of the UN Forum on Forests will serve as the focal point for the implementation of the International Year of Forests, in collaboration with governments, the members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and international, regional and subregional organizations and processes as well as relevant major groups. More.
Ninth Session of the UN Forum on Forests (UNFF 9)
24 January - 4 February 2011
UNFF 9 will focus on forests for people, livelihoods and poverty eradication. The means of implementation for sustainable forest management will also be discussed. More.
9th RRI Dialogue on Forests, Governance & Climate Change
8 February 2011
The Rights and Resources Initiative announced that the 9th global Dialogue in this series will continue to bring together decision makers and civil society organizations on critical issues of the role of forests in the climate change agenda. Sessions will focus on taking stock of new developments on rights and REDD+ in Cancun, the crucial role of forest restoration and reforestation for both climate mitigation and adaptation, and formulating more coherent safeguards and recourse mechanisms for REDD+ programs. More.
The II Mediterranean Forest Week
5-8th April 2011 - Avignon, France
The Mediterranean Forests Week will bring together the forest research community and relevant stakeholders (policy-makers, managers, forest owners’ representatives, NGO’s, etc) to improve the science-policy dialogue. More.
UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies
6-17 June 2011 Bonn, Germany
Sessions of SBSTA, SBI and the AWG-KP and AWG-LCA. More.
The positive contribution of agriculture and forestry to combating climate change
Eurochoices. 2010. 9: 3, 30-35.
Significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be achieved whilst at the same time developing the production potential of EU agriculture and forestry through increased productivity. Therefore, research and investment in innovation and new technologies are needed. Agriculture and forestry are uniquely placed in being able to reduce GHG emissions whilst adapting their own businesses and facilitating society's adaptation to climate change. Farmers in the EU-27 have already contributed to a significant decrease in GHG emissions of 20 per cent between 1990 and 2006. The implementation of the EU's climate and energy package must not jeopardise the economic viability and competitiveness nor the social component of agricultural and forestry activities. Beyond their productive role, environmental benefits, landscape preservation and employment opportunities are delivered by both sectors. However, several factors hamper their contribution to combating climate change: and there is a risk that measures put in place to reduce GHG emissions will result in the delocalisation of agricultural production outside the EU. There is limited capacity of autonomous farm level adaptation. It is vital, therefore, that we have a strong Common Agricultural Policy to support farmers in improving their resilience to climatic variability and in contributing to climate change mitigation, which will deliver cost-saving benefits for society as a whole.
Global climate change and carbon balance in forest ecosystems of boreal zones: simulation modeling as a forecast tool
Shanin, V. N.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Bykhovets, S. S.; Komarov, A. S.
Biology Bulletin. 2010. 37: 6, 619-629
The individual-based system of models EFIMOD simulating carbon and nitrogen flows in forest ecosystems has been used for forecasting the response of forest ecosystems to various forest management regimes with climate change. As input data the forest inventory data for the Manturovskii forestry of the Kostroma region were used. It has been shown that increase of mid-annual temperatures and precipitation influence the redistribution of carbon and nitrogen supply in organic form: supply increase of these elements in phytomass simultaneously with depletion of them in soil occurred. The most carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest ecosystems occurs in the scenario without felling. In addition, in this scenario only the ecosystems of the modeling territory function as a carbon sink; in the other two scenarios (with selective and clear cutting) they function as a source of carbon. Climate changes greatly influence the decomposition rate of organic matter in soil, which leads to increased emission of carbon dioxide. The second consequence of the increase in the destruction rate is nitrogen increase in the soil in a form available for plants that entails productivity increase of stands.
A pilot project to store carbon as biomass in African woodlands
Capturing carbon by planting trees or avoiding deforestation is thought to be a cost-effective way to reduce the inexorable rise in CO2 in the atmosphere. We describe a way to motivate African farmers to plant trees and protect woodland, based on a Mozambican pilot project in the voluntary carbon market. By late 2009, 1510 farmers were enrolled. Between 2003 and 2009, the project was able to sell carbon credits totaling approximately US$1.3 million on the voluntary carbon market, corresponding to 156,000 tCO2, at a price that averaged US$9.0 per ton. Moreover, the effect of the carbon project was to increase rural employment from 8.6 to 32%, whilst 73% of households raised commercial crops compared with 23% previously. There was also a notable development of social capital, with a measurable increase in literacy and the development of a business ethos with associated practical skills.
Small holder's carbon forestry project in Haryana India: issues and challenges
Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change. 2010 Dec. 15(8) p. 899-915.
The small scale forestry carbon project in Haryana, India has been registered as a Clean Development Project (CDM) activity and is the first such projects from India. Developed under the Kyoto Protocol of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the projects aims at restoring heavily degraded sandune affected private lands and contribute to climate change mitigation. The project is expected to sequester 234,584 tons of carbon dioxide (tCOpo) in 20 years project cycle with an average annual sequestration of 11,729 (tCOpo) per year. The project is expected to have a total carbon stock of 385,253.1 ton Carbon (tC) in the project life span of 20 years as against 7,920.6 (tC) in the baseline scenario. The carbon credits earned from the project is supposed to provide additional incentives to the smallholders who have formed a cooperative society for this purpose. This paper addresses the issues and challenges in developing the project activity and also discusses the lessons learned in the process. The project is supposed to help in poverty alleviation and has become a success story for rehabilitating degraded lands in semi arid regions of India through plantation forestry.
Governing sustainable forest management in the new climate regime
Seymour, F. Forwand, E.
Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 2010. 1: 6, 803-810
The newly appreciated role of deforestation and forest degradation as globally significant sources of carbon emissions has focused fresh political attention and large prospective financial flows on tropical forest management. Negotiations at the Thirteenth Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change produced a 'road map' toward including compensation to tropical countries for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in a future global climate agreement. The prospect of a global REDD mechanism has spurred the development of REDD initiatives by national governments, international organizations, and private actors. These new initiatives are facing many of the same forest governance challenges that have stymied past efforts to improve the conservation and management of tropical forests. To be effective, efficient, and equitable, REDD efforts will not only have to reverse the economic incentives that drive forest loss, but will also need to clarify land tenure, link to international efforts to curb illegal logging and trade, and manage trade-offs among competing objectives. They will also need to strengthen the institutional capacity for inclusive REDD design processes, transparent monitoring of carbon emissions and financial flows, and cross-sectoral and cross-scale coordination. At the same time, REDD initiatives could provide opportunities to accelerate the required forest governance reforms.
Fixing a flawed approach to forest accounting in the next round of the Kyoto Protocol
Nora Greenglass, Jason Funk, Miriam Chaum, Richard A Houghton
Opportunities for small-scale forestry in carbon markets
Dargusch, P. Harrison, S. Thomas, S
Small-scale Forestry. 2010. 9: 4, 397-408
This paper presents an explanatory framework of how greenhouse gas emissions offsets produced from natural and planted forests ('carbon forestry') feature in voluntary and regulated carbon markets. An introduction to the convoluted policy malaise surrounding the use of forests in regulated carbon markets is also presented. Whilst there are many opportunities and potential benefits of using forests to produce offsets, relatively few carbon forestry projects currently exist, particularly in regulated carbon markets. This seems due to financial, institutional and administrative obstacles, with prohibitive transaction costs often cited as the most prominent constraint to expanded carbon forestry development. The papers in this special issue present a wide coverage of carbon forestry development policy issues. The special issue provides a unique insight into the state of carbon forestry globally and highlights the pressing need for policy and market reform to facilitate more sustainable carbon forestry development.
Carbon cautious: Israel's afforestation experience and approach to sequestration
Tal, A. Gordon, J.
Small-scale Forestry. 2010. 9: 4, 409-428
During the past 60 years, afforestation has transformed Israel's landscape, with forests planted or planned on 10% of the country's land, much of it with less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. After early efforts to establish a successful commercial timber industry failed, recreation and ecosystem services came to dominate forestry policy objectives. Given Israel's status as a 'developing country' under the Kyoto Protocol, forests' economic potential through carbon sequestration has been explored, but has not yet proven to be compelling. Several considerations cooled initial enthusiasm for seeking international carbon credits through afforestation. These include administrative obstacles associated with international accreditation, limited potential economic profitability, and ethical considerations. Rather, a voluntary offsetting program was adopted, allowing donors to plant trees in Israel, that balance individual carbon emissions. Afforestation in drylands exhibit meaningful potential to counteract chronic carbon loss due to land degradation. As trees planted in Israel's semi-arid regions exhibit surprisingly high carbon sequestration properties that are comparable to forests in temperate Europe, the potential for offsetting may become a growing factor in local forestry policy once Israel begins to regulate CO2 emissions.
Agency in international climate negotiations: the case of indigenous peoples and avoided deforestation
International environmental agreements politics, law and economics. 2010 Dec. 10(4) p. 317-332
This article examines the agency of indigenous peoples in designing a mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) under the emerging post-2012 agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It investigates whether indigenous peoples have agency in international negotiations and specifically the REDD design process and if so, how they have obtained it. Agency refers to the ability of actors to prescribe behaviour and to substantively participate in and/or set their own rules related to the interactions between humans and their natural environment. The aim of this study is to gain understanding of what role non-nation state actors, particularly indigenous peoples, play in shaping the REDD design process under the climate convention and what is shaping their agency. A special emphasis is placed on indigenous peoples as they may be highly vulnerable to the impacts from both climate change and certain policy responses. The article finds that, through REDD, indigenous peoples and forest community alliances are emerging in the climate regime but their agency in designing a mechanism on forest protection in a post-2012 climate regime remains indirect and weak. They are being consulted and invited to provide input, but they are not able to directly participate and ensure that their views and concerns are reflected in the outcome on REDD.
Estimating carbon carrying capacity in natural forest ecosystems across heterogeneous landscapes: addressing sources of error
Keith, H. Mackey, B. Berry, S. Lindenmayer, D. Gibbons, P.
Global Change Biology. 2010. 16: 11, 2971-2989
Evaluating contributions of forest ecosystems to climate change mitigation requires well-calibrated carbon cycle models with quantified baseline carbon stocks. An appropriate baseline for carbon accounting of natural forests at landscape scales is carbon carrying capacity (CCC); defined as the mass of carbon stored in an ecosystem under prevailing environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes but excluding anthropogenic disturbance. Carbon models require empirical measurements for input and calibration, such as net primary production (NPP) and total ecosystem carbon stock (equivalent to CCC at equilibrium). We sought to improve model calibration by addressing three sources of errors that cause uncertainty in carbon accounting across heterogeneous landscapes: (1) data-model representation, (2) data-object representation, (3) up-scaling. We derived spatially explicit empirical models based on environmental variables across landscape scales to estimate NPP (based on a synthesis of global site data of NPP and gross primary productivity, n=27), and CCC (based on site data of carbon stocks in natural eucalypt forests of southeast Australia, n=284). The models significantly improved predictions, each accounting for 51% of the variance. Our methods to reduce uncertainty in baseline carbon stocks, such as using appropriate calibration data from sites with minimal human disturbance, measurements of large trees and incorporating environmental variability across the landscape, have generic application to other regions and ecosystem types. These analyses resulted in forest CCC in southeast Australia (mean total biomass of 360 t C ha-1, with cool moist temperate forests up to 1000 t C ha-1) that are larger than estimates from other national and international (average biome 202 t C ha-1) carbon accounting systems. Reducing uncertainty in estimates of carbon stocks in natural forests is important to allow accurate accounting for losses of carbon due to human activities and sequestration of carbon by forest growth.
Estimating tropical deforestation from Earth observation data
Carbon sequestration potential of forest land: management for products and bioenergy versus preservation
Deusen, P. van
Biomass and Bioenergy. 2010. 34: 12, 1687-1694
A 40 year projection of potential carbon sequestration is based on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from the state of Georgia. The objective is to compare carbon sequestration under a sustainable management strategy versus a preservation strategy. FIA plots are projected ahead in time with hotdeck matching. This matches each subject plot with another plot from the database that represents the subject plot at a future time. The matched plot sequences are used to provide input data to a harvest scheduling program to generate a management strategy for the state. The sequestration from the management strategy is compared with a preservation strategy that involves no harvesting. Harvested wood is assumed to go into products with various half life decay rates. Carbon sequestration is increased as increasing proportions go into wood for energy, which is treated like a product with an infinite half life. Therefore, the harvested carbon does not return immediately to the atmosphere. Public land and land close to cities is assumed to be unavailable, and all other private land is assumed to be accessible. The results are presented as gigatonnes of CO2 equivalent to make them directly comparable to US annual carbon emissions. The conclusion is that forest management will sequester more above-ground carbon than preservation over a 40 year period if the wood is used for products with an average half life greater than 5 years.
A small-scale forestry perspective on constraints to including REDD in international carbon markets
Dargusch, P. Lawrence, K. Herbohn, J. Medrilzam
Small-scale Forestry. 2010. 9: 4, 485-499
In this article the authors contend that the constraints to including reduced emissions from avoided tropical forest deforestation and degradation in international carbon markets stem from problems associated with: (1) correctly measuring emissions savings from avoided tropical forest deforestation and degradation; (2) the permanence and 'leakage' of tropical forest conservation regimes; (3) ensuring economic incentives for the avoidance of tropical forest deforestation and degradation are sufficiently effective; (4) the exclusion of reduced emissions from avoided tropical forest deforestation and degradation from critical international climate change policy agreements; and (5) the behaviour of investors in carbon markets. Case analysis of the 'Emissions Biodiversity Exchange Project for the 21st Century' (EBEX21) program of Landcare Research New Zealand is used to examine how a government-supported market-based forest conservation initiative can be used to address these constraints, particularly in the context of small-scale forestry conservation.
Getting ready for REDD+
Forest, Climate, and Livelihood research network (Focali)
Following the Focali report in 2009 that provided an assessment of initiatives involved in preparing and building capacity for REDD, Focali releases the report Getting ready for REDD+ that provides an update of what has happened in the REDD+ arena in the last two years and identifies some key issues for the future. The report.
Climate change implications for agricultural development and natural resources conservation in Africa
FAO, Nature & Faune Volume 25, Issue No. 1
This issue offers seventeen articles distributed among the following aspects of the climate change theme: two articles on Climate Change Impact; three articles on Climate Change Mitigation; nine articles on Climate Change Adaptation; and three articles that straddle all aspects of the climate change topic. The edition also presents specific information on aspects of climate change issues in individual countries including Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Zimbabwe. The publication.
Lessons from REDD+ for Agriculture
The Challenge Program on Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) has released a report and associated policy brief, both titled "Lessons from REDD+ for Agriculture." The publication.
Forests and Climate Change in the Near East Region
The primary objective of this FAO, Forests and Climate Change Working Paper, is to provide an overview of the actual and potential impact of climate change on forests and forest dependent people in the Near East region, of climate change mitigation opportunities in the forestry sector, and of needs for effective national and regional responses. Please find the publication on
Harvesting Knowledge on REDD+ - Early Lessons from the FCPF Initiative and Beyond
FCPF -World Bank
The publication is an effort to summarize important lessons being learned by the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) in its first two years of existence. It is offered in order to help facilitate communication among FCPF participants and observers, to create a better understanding of progress to date, and to share ideas on how to address the challenges ahead. The publication.
The BioCarbon Fund Experience – Insights from Afforestation/Reforestation CDM Projects
The publication is an effort to inform project developers and policy-makers about the main insights from the BioCarbon Fund while designing and implementing CDM forestry projects. This publication aims to shed light on the opportunities the Clean Development Mechanism offers to the forestry sector and also on the challenges encountered by project developers when complying with the regulatory requirements. The publication.
What is REDD? A Guide for Indigenous Communities
Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact, Forest Peoples Programme, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs and Tebtebba 2010
Building Forest Carbon Projects: A Step-by-Step Guide
The Katoomba Group
This document seeks to provide streamlined guidance to proponents and developers of forest carbon projects from the private sector, civil society organizations or government agencies and tries to help them navigate the complex challenges the development of forest carbon projects entails. The guide.
Comparison of methods for measuring and assessing carbon stocks and carbon stock changes in terrestrial carbon pools
This protocol for a systematic review will compare methods of measuring carbon stocks and carbon stock changes in all primarily vegetated land use and land cover types, e.g., forest, croplands, wetlands, pastures, agroforestry systems (FAO, 2005), and all major terrestrial carbon pools (soil including peat, deadwood, litter, above and below-ground biomass). The protocol.
Climate change and biodiversity in the European Union overseas entities
This publication offers for the first time a comparative analysis of the 28 overseas entities of the European Union. It starts with a thematic analysis presenting the transversal threats on overseas entities in the face of climate change. Subsequent sections, specific for each of the 28 entities, provide some contextual data and an overview of their remarkable biodiversity, in addition to presenting the new threats resulting from climate change. The publication.
Governance, forests and REDD+ in Latin America
The implementation and success of REDD+ strategies, plans and projects will depend on whether REDD+ influences governance or is shaped by existing governance failures. The brief.
National REDD-plus systems, Indonesia and Viet Nam
The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
A report on national REDD-plus readiness challenges, activities, and progress in Indonesia and Viet Nam, two countries that offer important contrasts for analytical inquiry with respect to forest resources, forest management, and drivers of deforestation and degradation. The country studies cover the development of national REDD-plus strategies, organisations and institutions, reference emissions levels, national forest carbon accounting systems, and benefit sharing. The report.
Forests and climate change in Latin America - Linking adaptation and mitigation in projects and policies
Integrating adaptation and mitigation in forestry projects and policies would maximise local cobenefits and contribute to increased capacity to cope with the risks associated with climate change. Latin America has had some preliminary experience with the linkages between adaptation and mitigation at the level of projects. Projects should be assessed to determine their potential to include both adaptation and mitigation measures. Climate change or forest policies can facilitate the integration of adaptation and mitigation in the forest sector, but few policies in Latin America have addressed the linkages between adaptation and mitigation. The brief.
Technical assistant for the "REDD + plateau Guyana" programme
Based in cayenne, under the direct authority of the Coordinator of the climate change unit of ONFI and working closely with the Regional Director of ONF in French Guiana, he / she will be in charge of coordinating the "REDD + plateau Guyana" programme implemented and funded by the FFEM INTERREG IV. More.
Consultant, Southeast Asia Forest Carbon Capacity Development
The Rainforest Alliance
Building on Rainforest Alliance’s established network, and in close coordination with Climate Program as well as Forestry Division (TREES and SmartWood), the Consultant will coordinate the implementation of activities that lead to the generation of forest carbon projects, including supporting community-based forest enterprises in enhanced forest management that serves as the basis for such projects. Activities will be focused in Indonesia and Vietnam. More.
Fellowships in African climate science
The DFID-Hadley Centre Climate Science Research Partnership (CSRP) is pleased to announce a Call for Applications for fellowships in African climate science. Please refer to the attached document, which provides full details of the fellowships, grant awards available, eligibility criteria and information on how to apply. Three types of fellowship are available: Postgraduate Research Fellowships, Postdoctoral Research Fellowships and Applications Project Fellowships. Applicants must be resident nationals of an African country and the fellowship must be hosted at an African Institute. The deadline for applications is 4 February 2011. More.
Project Manager Forestry
Based in Medellín or Mexico City the project manager will be working on Afforestation, Reforestation, and REDD (+) projects, including Due Diligence, PDD development, preparation for validation, monitoring and verification. Providing distinctive consultancy services to clients in the area of forest carbon, nature conservation and ecosystem services. On a case-by-case basis, supporting the implementation of non-forestry CDM/VER projects and consultancy mandates in Latin America as needed. More.
International web portal for terrestrial carbon scientists, economists, policy makers and students
Terrestrial Carbon Group
New wbsite has been launched for terrestrial carbon scientists, economists, policy makers and students to support effective inclusion of terrestrial carbon sequestration in post-Kyoto Climate Change Agreements. The site.
New journal: Carbon Management
Carbon Management captures the range of expertise and innovative enquiry represented by the diverse disciplines contributing to enhancing our comprehension of carbon interactions - from meteorology, hydrology, geology and botany to economics, land management, architecture and engineering - and disseminates their collective findings.
The scope of Carbon Management provides global perspectives on a global issue. Coverage includes: Natural cycles, sinks and sources of carbon and other greenhouse gases in relation to terrestrial, aquatic, marine and atmospheric environments, Impacts of anthropogenic activities, such as transport, energy, the built environment, and food, on greenhouse gas emissions, Management processes to measure, assess and mitigate associated carbon emissions at all scales, from country level through to industry, business and individual, Policy initiatives to regulate, finance, incentivise and account for carbon emissions' reductions, Adaptation measures to address the impacts of climate change. Latest issue of the Journal.