Annotated bibliography

This collection of references provides additional reading to the subject data collection through interviews.

Davis-Case, D. 1990. The Community's Toolbox: The Ideas, Methods and Tools for Participatory Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation in Community Forestry. Community Forestry Field Manual 2.

This field manual provides a practical set of guidelines for various approaches considered essential for sustainable and successful community forestry. It reassesses many of the conventional monitoring and evaluation methods and tools, favoring a bottom-up approach which encourages, supports and strengthens communities' existing abilities to identify their own needs, set their own objectives, and monitor and evaluate them. This approach focuses on the relationship between the beneficiaries and field staff and the beneficiaries and the community. It builds on two-way communication, clear messages, and a joint commitment to what "works" for the community.

Fink, A. 1995. The Survey Kit.

A clear and simple survey kit for researchers and practitioners in the social and health sciences and individuals in the public and private sectors who are responsible for conducting and using surveys. In addition to separate volumes on in-person and telephone interviews, the new edition includes sections on: data management; literacy and language issues; qualitative survey research techniques; including focus group interviewing; content analysis; survey ethics; ethical principles to use; characteristics of survey research misconduct; factorial design and conjoint analysis; cultural considerations; translation of interviews into other languages; CAPI interviews; Each of the ten volumes contain checklists, warnings of things to avoid, examples of what does and doesn't work, and, new to this edition, exercises with answers and a glossary at the end of each volume. The kit consists of ten booklets that are also available individually.

Freudenberger, K. 1995. Tree and Land Tenure: Rapid Appraisal Tools. Community Forestry Field Manual 4.. (available at

This manual offers guidelines for using rapid appraisal methods to gather information on tenure and natural resource management. The author defines rapid appraisal as "a family of methodologies designed to encourage the participation of local communities in the collection and use of information to improve their livelihood. The methods which have been used in all parts of the world put a premium on the usefulness of research as well as the rapidity with which results are obtained" (pg. 1). She adds that rapid appraisal methodology means dividing resources into three broad categories - holdings, commons and reserves - and then understanding how villages and households approach tree and forest resource management in each category. And she stresses that not only must information be quickly obtained and useful but that it must also be used. That is, agencies must be prepared to adapt their programs and activities in response to what they have learned about local realities.

Gibson, Clark, C., McKean, M. & Ostrom, E. 2000. Forests and Communities: Communities, Institutions, and Governance. (available at

The book "People and Forests" explores the complex interactions between local communities and their forests. It focuses on the rules by which communities govern and manage their forest resources. As part of the International Forestry Resources and Institutions research program, each of the contributors employs the same systematic, comparative and interdisciplinary methods to examine why some people use their forests sustainably while others do not. The case studies come from fieldwork in Bolivia, Ecuador, India, Nepal and Uganda. "People and Forests" offers policymakers a sophisticated view of local forest management from which to develop policy options and offers biophysical and social scientists a better understanding of the linkages between residents, local institutions and forests. The web address links to an earlier version of this book and was published by FAO in 1998 as a working paper.

Gujarati, D.N. 1995. Basic Econometrics. New York, USA, McGraw-Hill Book Company..

Gujarati's Basic Econometrics provides an elementary but comprehensive introduction to econometrics without resorting to matrix algebra, calculus, or statistics beyond the elementary level. Because of the way the book is organized, it may be used at a variety of levels of rigor. A CD of data sets is provided with the text.

Hoskins, M. W. 1990. The contribution of forestry to food security. In Unasylva, 41, no. 160, 3-13. (available at

This article provides an overview of the role that forests and trees have traditionally played in food security and argues that this role deserves more attention in policy formulation, program planning, design and implementation. According to the author, not only has the relationship between forestry and agriculture been neglected, it has also often been viewed as dichotomous, despite the fact that traditional farming practices in many parts of the world incorporate trees in production systems.

King, G., Keohane, R.O. and Verba, S. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton U. Press..

The book is considered by many as the most important for good quality social science research. It develops a unified approach to valid descriptive and causal inference. It provides an excellent overview of the logic behind good quantitative and good qualitative research and demonstrate that the two follow the same basic logic. The book gives the reader the ideas and tools to conduct good research in areas where numeric measures are either impossible or undesirable.

Litwin, M.S. 1995. How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity.

Covers issues such as: various methods for measuring reliability, measurement of validity, addressing cross-cultural issues, and scaling and scoring of surveys. Aimed at helping readers improve the accuracy of their survey, How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity shows readers how to assess and interpret the quality of their survey data by thoroughly examining the survey instrument used. It explains how to code and pilot test new and established surveys. In addition, it covers such issues as how to measure reliability (such as test-retest, alternate-form, internal consistency, interobserver, and intraobserver reliability); how to measure validity (including content, criterion, and construct validity); how to address cross-cultural issues in survey research; and how to scale and score a survey.

Molnar, A. 1989. Community Forestry: Rapid Appraisal. Community Forestry Note 3. (available at

This publication reviews and assesses the range and effectiveness of the various rapid appraisal techniques that are used by specialists in the field. It aims to identify the common elements of different approaches and to evaluate the trade-offs involved in choosing among them; further, it aims to clarify the terminology which has proliferated with the new methods. It addresses several types of users: people working in natural resource management who wish to know about promising approaches; donor agency staff responsible for designing projects in natural resource management who need to know what the method can do for their project and who need to budget for training and staff development to undertake survey and planning exercises; people using RRA techniques who need to know where the potential pitfalls lie in the use of these techniques and how other people have resolved them; host country staff who lack the RRA documentation to develop a comparative understanding of what different approaches have in common.

Ostrom, E. & Wertime, M.B. 2000. International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) Research Strategy. (available at

This Research Strategy provides a broad overview of the goals of the IFRI research program and its methods of operation. More detailed information about the structure and content of the IFRI database, theoretical foundations, and findings from initial studies is available from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University. The IFRI Research Program is a long-term effort to establish an international network of Collaborating Research Centers (CRCs) that: · continuously monitor and report on forest conditions, plant biodiversity, and rates of deforestation in a sample of forests in their country or region; · continuously monitor and report on the activities and outcomes achieved by community organizations; local, regional, and national governments; businesses; NGOs; and donor-managed projects in their country or region; · prepare policy reports of immediate relevance for forest users, government officials, NGOs, donors, and policy analysts; and · build substantial in-country capacity to conduct rigorous and policy-relevant research relying on interdisciplinary teams already trained in advanced social and biological

Patton, M.Q. 2001. Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Chapter 7. Thousand Oaks, California, Sage Publications.

Patton (the Union Institute) introduces the principles and methods of qualitative research and evaluation. Chapters cover conceptual issues in qualitative inquiry (including strategic themes and variety), the design of qualitative studies, fieldwork strategies and observation methods, interviewing, analysis, interpretation, and reporting. Important controversies are outlined, and key points are illustrated with examples. Chapter seven is particularly useful for NFA users as it discussed the possibilities and pitfalls of semi-structured interviews.

last updated:  Thursday, November 25, 2004