17 January 2012 - RECOFTC
REDD+, forests and food
At Durban’s Forest Day 5, the resounding message was that REDD+ will not work if people are hungry. How can we expect the poor to conserve forest resources if their food security – their very survival – rests on the use or consumption of those resources?
16 January 2012 – Forest Carbon Asia
UN aid to protect Sri Lankan forest cover
The Department of Forests under the Ministry of Environment, with the support of FAO, UNDP and UNEP, took steps towards making forests a major part of Sri Lanka’s strategy to combat climate change through the United Nations UN-REDD programme which assists developing countries to prepare and implement their national REDD+ strategies and mechanisms to improve forest governance.
16 January 2012 – Alertnet
Climate Conversations – Breakthrough or procrastination at Durban?
After two weeks days of intensive and hectic negotiations, the representatives of 194 nations unexpectedly agreed to a last-minute global deal which sets a road map for negotiating a new global legally binding regime
13 January 2012 – Alertnet
Brazil’s Amazon Fund bogs down, donors frustrated
An international fund to protect the Amazon forest launched by Brazil in 2008 has gotten bogged down in red tape and donors are frustrated their $466 million contributions are hardly put to use, a Norwegian official said.
12 January 2012 – Daily Trust
Reducing forest emissions needs good science
The climate change debate offers a way to integrate forest management into development policy, but strategies must be informed by good science. Conservationists have long recognised the role of forests in supporting indigenous people’s livelihoods in developing countries. In addition to fuel and building material, forests often provide critical supplies of food and medicine.
12 January 2012 – Nature
Climate policy: Deadline 2015
Climate change has a new target date. The agreement reached last month at the United Nations (UN) conference in Durban, South Africa, specifies that negotiations towards a new, legally binding regime should be concluded by 2015
12 January 2012 – Mongabay
Targeting methane, black carbon could buy world a little time on climate change
A new study in Science argues that reducing methane and black carbon emissions would bring global health, agriculture, and climate benefits. While such reductions would not replace the need to reduce CO2 emissions, they could have the result of lowering global temperature by 0.5 degrees Celsius (0.9 degree Fahrenheit) by mid-century, as well as having the added benefits of saving lives and boosting agricultural yields.
10 January 2012 - Bloomberg
Climate Talks Should Fix CO2 Price, Not Cap, Neuroscientist Says
United Nations climate envoys should set a carbon price rather than fix a global cap on greenhouse- gas emissions, cutting the complexity of international negotiations, said a neuroscientist.
05 January 2012 - Mongabay
Climate change media coverage drops 20 percent in 2011
Global media reporting on climate change issues was down again last year, according to a new analysis from The Daily Climate. The news organization counted around 19,000 stories on climate issues during the year written by 7,140 journalists, falling 20 percent from 2010 levels.
2 January 2012 - BBC
Saving the Amazon: Winning the war on deforestation
For years, the story told about the Amazon has been one of destruction - the world's largest rainforest, a region of amazing biodiversity, key to the fight against climate change, being remorselessly felled. But that is no longer the whole truth.
28 December 2011 – Mongabay
The year in review for rainforests
2011 was designated as "Year of the Forests" by the United Nations. While there was relatively little progress on intergovernmental forest protection programs during the year, a lot happened elsewhere. Below is a look at some of the biggest tropical forest-related news stories for 2011.
II. UNFCCC negotiations and related discussions
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
No negotiations have taken place since the December 2011 issue. The next negotiations will take place in May in Bonn, Germany where the Bonn Climate Change Conference will take place from 14 May to 25 May 2012. The negotiations will include the following bodies and working groups: The 36th sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), the fifteenth session of the AWG-LCA, the seventeenth session of the AWG-KP and the first sessions of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action.
In the June 2012 Issue we will be back with a summary of the conference.
III. Events & meetings
International Society of Tropical Foresters. 18th annual conference
26-28 January 2012, New Haven, USA.
The Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies organizes a two day conference on strategies for landscape –scale restoration in the tropics. More
20th Sessions Near East Forestry and Range Commission (NEFRC)
29 January – 02 February 2012, Antalya, Turkey
Climate change adaptation is on the agenda of the upcoming session of the Near East Forestry and Range Commission (NEFRC). The NEFRC is one of the six Regional Forestry Commissions which, with the support of FAO, are policy and technical forum for countries to discuss and address forest issues on a regional basis. The NEFRC session will explore issues and needs related to climate change impacts and adaptation in the forest and range sectors. An afternoon session is also devoted to discussion of regional cooperation on forests and climate change adaptation, exploring potential opportunities for enhanced action among the member countries of the NEFRC with support of various partners. This builds on a meeting of NEFRC member countries and partners held in September in Cairo to develop proposals for sub-regional networks and support mechanisms on climate change adaptation. More
Mitigation and Adaptation: Managing Forest Conflicts in the context of Climate Change for the ASEAN region
27 February – 2 March, Siem Reap, Cambodia
This five day course explores this nexus of forestry and conflict management in the context of climate change. Putting people at the heart of forest management, it aims to build the capacity of forest sector stakeholders and conflict management practitioners to prevent and manage conflict in support of community forestry development. More
Forests models for research and decision support in sustainable forest management
1-2 March 2012, Pierroton (Bordeaux), France
This international conference will focus on the current state of knowledge on forest models and their use to support decision support in sustainable forest management. It will highlight the results of the COST Action FP0603 and discuss them in the context of the world research on this topic.
The conference is directed not only to researchers but provides also a forum for stakeholders where the support of models to forest management will be presented and discussed.
100 to 150 scientists, policy makers, planners, managers, specialized journalists, including representatives of a wide range of socioeconomic, ecological and institutional contexts are expected. More
Beyond carbon: ensuring justice and equity in REDD+ across levels of governance
23-24 March 2012, Oxford, UK. Deadline for submission of abstracts is the 4th of January 2012.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) has rapidly become a key pillar of international cooperation on climate change. Since its inception in 2005, REDD+ has grown in scope from being a cheap mitigation option and opportunity to address the 15-20% of global GHG emissions attributed to deforestation into a wider set of activities that reach beyond the carbon dimension of REDD+. They promote forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests and forest conservation as well as deliver co-benefits such as biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. A host of state and non-state actors at all levels of governance have entered this emerging policy field. This conference takes stock of these developments to date. It addresses them from both natural and social science perspectives and discusses the role of justice and equity in current debates on REDD+. Its particular aim is to discuss the limits and opportunities in deriving co-benefits from REDD+ activities. The conference calls for papers. Abstracts are invited and should be submitted by the 4th of January 2012. More
Climate Change Mitigation with Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples: Practices, Lessons Learned and Prospects.
The workshop aims to reflect the wide and diverse range of perspectives concerning indigenous peoples/local communities and climate change responses (including mitigation); support the build-up of understanding and peer-reviewed literature in the field of indigenous peoples, local communities and climate change mitigation; and to compile regional and local data and grey literature that are relevant for understanding climate change mitigation at the local level. It will also support indigenous peoples’, local communities’ and developing country scientists’ engagement and research in international climate dialogues. The workshop also intends to provide policy-makers with policy relevant information on mitigation, indigenous peoples and local communities. Selected papers will be considered for publication in a Special Issue of a peer-reviewed scientific journal. More
Planet Under Pressure: New knowledge towards solutions
26 -29 March, London, UK
The 2012 international Planet Under Pressure conference will provide a comprehensive update of the pressure planet Earth is now under. The conference will discuss solutions at all scales to move societies on to a sustainable pathway. It will provide scientific leadership towards the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development - Rio+20. More
24th International Climate Policy PhD Workshop
03-04 May 2012, Freiburg, Germany
The ICP workshops series is organised twice per year under the auspices of the European Ph.D. Network on International Climate Policy (ICP). It aims to offer doctoral candidates the opportunity to present their research ideas and results, receive feedback, and exchange information and assistance in an informal setting. Contributions of Ph.D. students from all disciplines working on topics relevant to climate policy are invited. Participation is free of charge, but participants are expected to cover their travel and accommodation expenses. We seek to bring together 30-40 Ph.D. students, who present and discuss their work. Each presentation will be followed by comments of a fellow Ph.D. candidate and a discussion of the paper. There will be a small number of places available for participants without own presentation. However, active involvement is required. Each participant may be asked to serve as a discussant for a presentation in a related field. Deadline for submission of abstract is 29 January 2012. More
Assessing forest governance in a context of change
9-12 May 2012, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina
The objective of the conference is to meet scientists and other experts to discuss the experiences in assessing the governance of the forest sector in various places of the world. Different approaches and methodologies will be confronted, with as a perspective to progress in the understanding of the different concepts of “governance” as applied in the forest policy and management issues. More
Forest for People
22 – 24 May 2012, Alpbach, Tyrol/Austria
The conference is one important part of the new IUFRO strategy based on six thematic areas. The aim of this conference is to build a systematic body of knowledge about “forest for people” and its various facets, including possible future trends and challenges. This conference and the following up process want to integrate not only the knowledge across all divisions but include the knowledge outside IUFRO. More
Adaptation Futures – 2012 International Conference on Climate Adaptation
29 – 31 May 2012, Arizona, USA
The conference focuses on adaptation to climate variability and change. The conference will bring together researchers, policy makers, and practitioners from developed and developing countries to share insights into the challenges and opportunities that adaptation presents. It will showcase cutting-edge research from around the world, focusing on themes of equity and risk, learning, capacity building, methodology, and adaptation finance and investment. It will explore practical adaptation policies and approaches, and share strategies for decision making from the international to the local scale. More
Rio + 20. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
20-22 June 2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The objective of the Conference is to secure renewed political commitment for sustainable development, assess the progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development, and address new and emerging challenges. The Conference will focus on two themes: i) green economy in the context of sustainable development and ii) the institutional framework for sustainable development. More
First IUFRO-FORNESSA -Regional Congress
The Congress will provide a platform for African forest scientists, forest managers and policy makers and their colleagues from other parts of the world to share and exchange information and experiences on critical issues affecting forest and wildlife resources in Africa. The overall goal of the congress is to demonstrate how forest science is impacting on livelihoods, environmental management and development in Africa. The congress will highlight research that puts relevant information in the hands of forest communities, forest managers, policy makers, the private sector and civil society. More
International conference – Forest-water interactions with respect to air pollution and climate change
Forest and water is one of the high priority areas of IUFRO. The forest-water interaction becomes a major concern in both local and global scales due to anthropogenic stressors like climate change and air pollution. Therefore, the management of forests towards water and carbon management and air pollution mitigation becomes a challenging issue and concern to be addressed. The aim of the conference is to provide a harmonization of forests, water cycle, climate change and air pollution issues. Presentations are welcome from various geographies on ecological, economical and social aspects of listed conference topics. More
The World Clean Technology Summit (WCTS)
26-28 September 2012, Kampala, Uganda
The World Clean Technology Summit will bring together world leaders in renewable energy, Forestry, exhibitors, investors, scientists and clean technology providers from around the world to engage, interact with each other, exchange business contacts, forge partnerships, and pave a way forward for a sustainable future. More
International Conference on sustainable forest management adapting to climate change
In order to promote knowledge exchanges of the latest scientific findings in sustainable forest management and to strengthen international collaborations in implementing forest management adapting to climate change, Chinese Society of Forestry(CSF), International Union for Forest Research Organizations(IUFRO) and International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) will co-sponsor the Second Forest Science Forum—International Conference on Sustainable Forest Management Adapting to Climate Change. The conference will be organized by the Chinese Society of Forestry and Beijing Forestry University in Beijing, during October 13-16, 2012. The conference calls for session proposals related to conference topics. More
IV. Research Articles
Bamboo in climate change and rural livelihoods
Lobovikov, M., Schoene, D., Yping, L.
Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change
Climate change negotiations, assessments, and greenhouse gas inventory guidelines have all but bypassed bamboo. Disallowing stands of tree-like bamboos as forests disparages their function in the carbon (C) cycle, and disregards pillars of smallholder livelihoods. Exposing bamboo not as a panacea, but as an overlooked option for C conservation, sequestration, and adaptation, we screen details of distribution, morphology, growth, physiology, and impacts for pertinence to climate change. Additional to 40 million hectares of existing bamboo forests, many potential host countries for C projects harbour suitable sites. Definitions, methods and default values, such as the root/shoot- ratio, biomass conversion factors, allometric equations and sampling variables need adjusting. Rapid maturation, persistent rhizomes, a rich palette of species, and wind-firmness may mitigate risk. Bamboos can accommodate agro-and urban forestry, and reign in unsustainable shifting cultivation. Distribution functions of bamboo biomass stocks and growths do not deviate drastically from those of trees. If anything, bamboo stocks are slightly lower, and growths slightly higher, with medians of 87 t*ha−1 and 10.5 t*ha−1*yr−1, respectively. However, bamboo’s outstanding socio-economic effects might well determine its future in mitigation and adaptation. Early, continuous yields, selective harvesting on even small parcels of land, low capital and high labor intensity, virtually 100% conversion efficiency to about 1,500 products, and, typically, 75% of economic returns benefiting rural people are advantageous attributes. Regional studies on suitability, silviculture, yields, economics, risk, and C assessment would strengthen bamboo’s function as ‘the poor man’s timber’ and promote its niche as the smallholder’s C sink.
Assessment of soil carbon storage in a tropical rehabilitated forest
Ch’ng, H-Y., Ahmed, O,S., Majid, N.M.A.
International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 6 (26) 6210-6219.
Decrease of tropical rainforests affects global warming and has attracted much attention. Afforestation programs have been suggested to mitigate this problem. But there is little research on the assessment of soil carbon (C) storage in a rehabilitated forest in tropical areas such as Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the C accumulation of a rehabilitated forest of different ages. Soil samples were collected from the 1 year old till 7 year old rehabilitated forest. Ten samples were taken randomly with a soil auger at depths 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Materials and methods section were used to analyse the soil samples for pH, total C, soil organic matter (SOM), total N, C/N ratio, yield of humic acids (HA), and C in HA (CHA). Results showed that pH decreased significantly with increasing age of rehabilitated forest regardless of depth. SOM and total C contents increased with age. No significant difference in the quantity of CHA content for the different ages of rehabilitated forest at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm soil were observed. Forest rehabilitation by planting indigenous tree species at initial ages (till 7 years old) has shown signs of C sink but does not exert any difference in the amount of C accumulated across the initial ages.
Reconciling timber provision with carbon sequestration opportunities in the tropical forests of Central America
Environmental Science & Policy. 2011. 14:8, 1091-1102.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) has classified a number of ecosystems good and services (EGS) provided by tropical forests, namely cultural, provisioning, regulatory and support services. The primary focus of this paper is to carry out an economic assessment by comparing the financial costs and returns of selected EGS, namely carbon and timber in the tropical forests of Central America. Timber is unusual from the other EGS provided by forests in that it competes with the other services, i.e. biodiversity, recreation and water services. Carbon storage is the non-timber value most often included in forest accounts and can be equated directly with timber available in terms of biomass content. The study provides a quantitative appraisal of the carbon and timber stocks and flows of tropical (primary) forests by evaluating them simultaneously using data from a number of sources. The provision of reliable and accurate estimates of the economic value of these services is crucial to plan adequate conservation policies that encourage the protection and sustainable management of tropical forests such as those under REDD+. Results indicate that the economic return for managing natural forests is influenced by timber and carbon prices as well as the discount rate applied. Timber on face value is the better land use option; however, there are many issues that need to be considered when valuing timber, especially regarding the management regimes. Revenues under REDD+ option would be higher if co-benefits, which include monies from the extraction of timber under Sustainable Forestry Management (SFM) are considered.
Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in Tropical Lowland Dipterocarp Rainforests in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo
Saner, P., Loh. Y.Y., Ong, R.C., Hector, A
ONE 7(1): e29642. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029642
Deforestation in the tropics is an important source of carbon C release to the atmosphere. To provide a sound scientific base for efforts taken to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+) good estimates of C stocks and fluxes are important. We present components of the C balance for selectively logged lowland tropical dipterocarp rainforest in the Malua Forest Reserve of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Total organic C in this area was 167.9 Mg C ha−1±3.8 (SD), including: Total aboveground (TAGC: 55%; 91.9 Mg C ha−1±2.9 SEM) and belowground carbon in trees (TBGC: 10%; 16.5 Mg C ha−1±0.5 SEM), deadwood (8%; 13.2 Mg C ha−1±3.5 SEM) and soil organic matter (SOM: 24%; 39.6 Mg C ha−1±0.9 SEM), understory vegetation (3%; 5.1 Mg C ha−1±1.7 SEM), standing litter (<1%; 0.7 Mg C ha−1±0.1 SEM) and fine root biomass (<1%; 0.9 Mg C ha−1±0.1 SEM). Fluxes included litterfall, a proxy for leaf net primary productivity (4.9 Mg C ha−1 yr−1±0.1 SEM), and soil respiration, a measure for heterotrophic ecosystem respiration (28.6 Mg C ha−1 yr−1±1.2 SEM). The missing estimates necessary to close the C balance are wood net primary productivity and autotrophic respiration. Twenty-two years after logging TAGC stocks were 28% lower compared to unlogged forest (128 Mg C ha−1±13.4 SEM); a combined weighted average mean reduction due to selective logging of −57.8 Mg C ha−1 (with 95% CI −75.5 to −40.2). Based on the findings we conclude that selective logging decreased the dipterocarp stock by 55–66%. Silvicultural treatments may have the potential to accelerate the recovery of dipterocarp C stocks to pre-logging levels.
Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning
Aerts, R & Honnay, O
BMC Ecology. 2011. 11:29.
Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above-below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but it also highlights that much remains to be understood, especially regarding the relation between forest functioning on the one side and genetic diversity and above-ground-below-ground species associations on the other. The strong emphasis of the BEF-approach on functional rather than taxonomic diversity may also be the beginning of a paradigm shift in restoration ecology, increasing the tolerance towards allochthonous species.
Opportunities and challenges for ecological restoration within REDD+
Alexander, S., Nelson, C. R., Aronson, J., Lamb, D., Cliquet, A., Erwin, K. L., Finlayson, C. M., Groot,
R. S. de., Harris, J. A., Higgs, E. S., Hobbs, R. J., Lewis, R. R. R., III., Martinez, D., Murcia, C.
Restoration Ecology. 2011. 19:6. 683-689
The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism has the potential to provide the developing nations with significant funding for forest restoration activities that contribute to climate change mitigation, sustainable management, and carbon-stock enhancement. In order to stimulate and inform discussion on the role of ecological restoration within REDD+, we outline opportunities for and challenges to using science-based restoration projects and programs to meet REDD+ goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and storing carbon in forest ecosystems. Now that the REDD+ mechanism, which is not yet operational, has expanded beyond a sole focus on activities that affect carbon budgets to also include those that enhance ecosystem services and deliver other co-benefits to biodiversity and communities, forest restoration could play an increasingly important role. However, in many nations, there is a lack of practical tools and guidance for implementing effective restoration projects and programs that will sequester carbon and at the same time improve the integrity and resilience of forest ecosystems. Restoration scientists and practitioners should continue to engage with potential REDD+ donors and recipients to ensure that funding is targeted at projects and programs with ecologically sound designs.
Marginalized Forests Peoples’ Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Governance: An Exploration
Pierce Colfer, C.J.
World Development. Volume 39, Issue 12, 2011.
Two issues prompted this review: Global concerns to decentralize and democratize will require more effective involvement of now-marginalized people; and addressing global problems (climate change, poverty, forests, and biodiversity loss) will pragmatically require their involvement. This exploratory review examined how marginalized groups in tropical forests have perceived the legitimacy of their forest-related governance. These perceptions are examined within the contexts of gender, age, ethnicity, and occupation. Important mechanisms by which people dealt with their marginalization are also addressed. These issues take on special urgency within the context of the recent global, forest-related climate change discourse.
Re-imagining forests as multifunctional and sustainable resources for a low carbon rural economy: the potential for forest-based rural development
Spanish journal of Rural Development (SJRD).2011. 2: 4, 37-50.
This paper explores the need for the re-imagination of forests with respect to their contribution to rural development. This process requires a departure from production-centred thinking to a more holistic vision that recognises the full range of ecosystem services that forests provide. It also requires more effective measurement of the value of forests and the reflection of those values in policy instruments. Realising that vision thus requires a re-imagination of institutions and policies to reward forest owners more effectively for the provision of crucial ecosystem services (including carbon), as well as the stimulation of regional innovation systems which can capture and add value to the linkages between forestry and rural development. In conclusion, in the looming struggle to address global climate change, there is scope for forests to make a much greater contribution to sustainable energy and sustainable products and services. The multiple current difficulties facing the forest sector are greatest in dryland areas where under-management of the forest resource, forest fires and disease are pressing issues. In more temperate maritime climate zones, the transition to new multifunctional roles is generally less challenging, but nonetheless strongly differentiated between production dominated and amenity-dominated forest management regimes. Addressing climate change and accommodating new values offers enormous scope for repositioning forestry and giving it a new salience in a low carbon world.
Simulation of carbon pool changes in woodlots in eastern Zambia using the CO2FIX model
Kaonga, M.L. & Bayliss-Smith, T,P.
Agroforestry Systems. DOI: 10.1007/s10457-011-9429-9
Agroforestry systems have the potential to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, data on tree and soil organic carbon (SOC) pools for most agroforestry systems are lacking because reliable methods for estimating ecosystem carbon (C) pools are scarce. This study quantified the effects of five Leucaena species (L. leucocephala, L. macrophylla, L. diversifolia, L. collinsii and L. pulverulenta) on vegetal and soil C stocks and on mean annual increment (MAI) in aboveground tree C stocks. Specifically, it tested the validity of the CO2FIX model using empirical data from 7 year-old woodlots at Msekera, Zambia, and assessed the impact of converting a degraded agricultural ecosystem to woodlots on C stocks. Measured above- and below-ground tree C stocks and MAI of aboveground biomass differed significantly among the Leucaena species. Measured stem and total aboveground tree C stocks in seven-year old woodlots ranged from 17.1 to 29.2 and from 24.5 to 55.9 Mg ha−1, respectively. Measured SOC stocks at 0–200 cm depth in Leucaena stands ranged from 106.9 (L. diversifolia) to 186.0 Mg ha−1 (L. leucocephala). Modeled stem and branch C stocks closely matched measured stocks, but the soil module of CO2FIX did not predict the soil C. The soil C data are inconclusive at this stage. We recommend that a fractionation and a soil aggregate hierarchy study backed by C dating is carried out to explain soil C dynamics in these soils. However, the model can be used only for estimating changes in aboveground tree C stocks in woodlots until soil C module is proven to predict SOC stocks.
Building regional priorities in forests for development and adaptation to climate change in the Congo Basin
Sonwa, J.D., Nkem, J.N., Idinoba, M.E., Bele, M, Y., Jum, C.
Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change. DOI 10.1007/s11027-011-9335-5
Indentifying common priorities in shared natural resource systems constitutes an important platform for implementing adaptation and a major step in sharing a common responsibility in addressing climate change. Predominated by discourses on REDD + (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries) with little emphasis on adaptation there is a risk of lack of policy measures in addressing climate change in the Congo Basin. Forest products and ecosystem services provide security portfolios for the predominantly rural communities, and play major roles in national development programmes in both revenue and employment opportunities. Thus, raising the profile of forests in the policy arena especially in the twin roles of addressing climate change in mitigation and adaptation and achieving resilient development is crucial. Within the framework of the Congo Basin Forests and Climate Change Adaptation project (COFCCA) project, science policy dialogue was conducted to identify and prioritize forest based sectors vulnerable to climate change but important to household livelihoods and national development. The goal of the prioritization process was for the development of intervention in forest as measures for climate change adaptation in Central Africa. Participants constituted a wide range of stakeholders (government, Non Governmental Organizations, research institutions, universities, community leaders, private sectors etc.) as representatives from three countries directly involved in the project: Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. Building on national priorities, four forest related sectors were identified as common priorities at the regional level for focus on climate change adaptation. These sectors included: (1) energy with emphasis on fuel wood and Charcoal; (2) Water principally quality, quantity, accessibility, etc.; (3) Food with emphasis on Non Timber Forest Products, and (4) Health linked to healthcare products (medicinal plants). Using these prioritized sectors, the project focused on addressing the impacts of climate change on local communities and the development of adaptation strategies in the three pilot countries of the Congo Basin region. The four sectors constitute the key for development in the region and equally considered as priority sectors in the poverty reduction papers. Focused research on these sectors can help to inject the role of forests in national and local development and their potentials contributions to climate change adaptation in national and public discourses. Mainstreaming forest for climate change adaptation into national development planning is the key to improve policy coherence and effectiveness in forest management in the region.
V. Publications, Reports and other media
Les forêts et le changement climatique dans la région du Proche-Orient. Document de travail 9.
Cette publication vise à fournir un point de départ permettant d'identifier et de catalyser l'action régionale en vue de compléter et de renforcer les efforts nationaux. Elle intéressera les spécialistes du changement climatique et les décideurs du secteur forestier dans la région du Proche-Orient, ainsi que les gestionnaires forestiers, les étudiants et le grand public désireux d'en apprendre davantage sur les forêts et le changement climatique dans la région. La publication
Creating New Values for Africa: Emerging Ecosystem Service Markets
Forest Trends, The Katoomba Group and Ecosystem Marketplace
This booklet Creating New Values for Africa: Emerging Ecosystem Service Markets contains 12 featured projects and initiatives which demonstrate the current innovations and challenges to carbon, water, biodiversity PES implementation in Africa. Our hope is that this publication, (coupled with training sessions, policy advice, legal analysis, and network building) will enable community leaders, government actors, NGO technical staff, project developers and other interested persons to gain access to PES best practice, build a local community of PES learning, craft policies that are supportive of PES, and design PES projects which provide lasting ecosystem services and livelihood benefits. The booklet
Project Developer’s Guidebook to VCS REDD Methodologies
The purpose of this guidebook is to assist project developers in evaluating and selecting those VCS approved methodology(ies) that are best suited to account for the greenhouse gas benefits of their proposed REDD project activities. It contains a summary of VCS requirements applicable to all REDD projects and a detailed review of those REDD methodologies approved under the VCS at the time of writing. It also provides a number of tools for developers to compare the applicability conditions, accounting approaches, and resource requirements associated with each methodology, and suggestions for applying these methodologies in practice.
This guidebook is intended to be a living document that will be updated periodically to include new methodologies that are approved by the VCS. The guidebook
Realizing Forest Rights in Vietnam: Addressing Issues in Community Forest Management
The document at hand is a product of a group of carefully selected researchers, policy experts, and practitioners seeking to share their experiences and viewpoints based on previous or on-going work. It is by no means a comprehensive discussion of all the issues related to community forest management in Vietnam. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the issues brought up by the authors in the document will shed light on some of the important aspects of community forest management in Vietnam and can serve as the starting point for further development of community forest management in the new context in Vietnam. The publication
REDD+ in Asia-Pacific: Are capacity building services meeting countries’ needs?
In the past three years tropical forested countries across the world have taken important institutional, policy, legal and piloting steps to become ‘ready’ for REDD+. Capacity building is a key component of this REDD+ readiness process and is backed by a huge investment of time and money from a large number of organizations, government agencies, communities and individuals. There has been a massive increase in capacity building during this short three year period, which begs the question: Do the organizations providing such services have the competencies to fully meet countries’ REDD+ readiness needs?
Surprisingly, little is known about the competencies of these organizations which include government agencies, NGOs, community groups, academic institutions, think-tanks, consultancies, legal firms and media companies. To fill this knowledge gap, RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests, with financial and advisory support from the Global UN-REDD Programme through the United Nations Environment Programme, assessed the strengths and identified the gaps in the capacity building services being provided in a sample of Asia-Pacific countries against their REDD+ readiness needs. Recommendations were then given on how to improve the REDD+ capacity building process in the region. The policy brief
REDD+ politics in the media. A case study from Vietnam
This study highlighted three factors that influence the media in reporting on REDD+ in Vietnam. It highlights three factors that influence the media in reporting on REDD+ in Vietnam. The study also intends to identify how REDD+ debates are framed in the policy domain, what concerns and claims are expressed in these, how different narratives about REDD+ relate to each other, and how these are used by actors representing different interests to strengthen political coalitions. The report is structured in four parts: part 1 establishes the relevance of this study and provides an overview of REDD+ and the role of the media in Vietnam; part 2 presents the methodology used in compiling and coding media coverage of REDD+; part 3 presents the results of the study; and part 4 discusses the result of the analysis and offers recommendations. The working paper
Laying the Foundation. An analytical Tool for Assessing Legal and Institutional Readiness for PES.
The Katoomba group & Forest Trends
This booklet offers an analytical framework for assessing legal and institutional readiness for PES transactions. It is divided into three sections based on timing and the order of addressing issues, with an eye to what will be most important to investors and buyers in payment for ecosystem services agreements. Specifically, the first level of preparing for PES agreements should be ensuring that fundamental or threshold conditions are in place for buyers to feel that there is sufficient stability in place to consider entering in these business arrangements. The second level of preparedness, while important for well-functioning PES, may be developed adaptively as needs and options become clearer via PES experience on the ground. Finally, level three includes non-urgent aspects that may be important to streamline or scale up PES, depending on the particular circumstances. The booklet
New global deforestation estimates
A satellite-based survey released by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) provides new information on changes in the world’s forests. The survey involved 100 countries through 200 national experts in the review process well as international experts and partners including the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) who were involved in producing land cover data for tropical areas and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) who provided imagery from NASA satellites. A key finding is that the rate of global deforestation, mainly the conversion of tropical forests to agricultural land, averaged 14.5 million hectares per year between 1990 and 2005. The net loss of forest area - in which losses of forest cover are partially offset by afforestation or natural expansion - totalled 72.9 million hectares between 1990 and 2005 or an average of 4.9 million hectares per year. The new data also show that the net loss of forests accelerated, increasing from 4.1 million hectares per year between 1990 and 2000 to 6.4 million hectares between 2000 and 2005. The global remote sensing survey estimates the world’s total forest area in 2005 to be 3.69 billion hectares, or 30 percent of the global land area. The 8 page summary report is available online here. These new results are important inputs to a range of processes where forest loss and gain are vital such as REDD+ discussions as part of the UNFCCC. The results of the survey were presented at a side event to the CoP 17 meeting in Durban by FAO and technical partners from the European Commission Joint Research Centre. The meeting agenda and presentations are available online here. More information is available through the FAO website and Press release.
The Global Political Economy of REDD+: Engaging Social Dimensions in the Emerging Green Economy
The UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
Green economy has generally focused on the energy sector, but interest in the role of forests in emissions reduction and in forest carbon markets is growing. This has led to the emergence of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, enhancement of carbon stock and sustainable management of forests in developing countries initiative (known collectively as REDD+) as a means through which individuals, projects and communities in developing countries can be financially rewarded for reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of carbon stock. The publication
COP-17 De-briefing: Enhancements, Decisions, and the Durban Package
Within this report, we summarize some of the key subjects under discussion in the COP and CMP meetings: adaptation, mitigation, capacity building, technology, finance, REDD+, and the flexibility mechanisms: CDM, JI, and emissions trading. Within these sections, we make note of the background of these areas leading into Durban, discuss some of the issues under debate, and discuss their subsequent outcomes. In addition, we have included a compilation of negotiating positions, emission reduction proposals or commitments, and financial pledges. We then turn our attention to other notable conclusions contained or missing from the Durban Package and look to the road ahead in 2012 as Parties prepare for next year’s COP and CMP conference in Qatar. The briefing
IISD Report. Assessing the Outcomes of COP17. In pursuit of a binding climate agreement: Negotiators expand the mitigation tent but reinforce the ambition gap
This report outlines a number of the key developments and outcomes from Durban while identifying where challenges remain moving forward. Our analysis includes thoughts on the general dynamics of COP 17 and on several thematic areas, including mitigation, NAMAs, financing, adaptation, MRV, market mechanisms and technology transfer, REDD+ and agriculture. The report
Forest Clearing in the Pantropics: December 2005-August 2011
Center for Global Development
This report summarizes recent trends in large-scale tropical forest clearing identified by FORMA (Forest Monitoring for Action). Our analysis includes 27 countries that accounted for 94 percent of clearing during the period 2000–2005. We highlight countries with relatively large changes since 2005, both declines and increases. FORMA produces indicators that track monthly changes in the number of 1-sq.-km. tropical forest parcels that have experienced clearing with high probability. This report and the accompanying spreadsheet databases provide monthly estimates for 27 countries, 280 primary administrative units, and 2,907 secondary administrative units. Countries’ divergent experiences since 2005 have significantly altered their shares of global clearing in some cases. Brazil’s global share fell by 11.2 percentage points from December 2005 to August 2011, while the combined share of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Myanmar increased by 10.8. The diverse patterns revealed by FORMA’s first global survey caution against facile generalizations about forest clearing in the pantropics. During the past five years, the relative scale and pace of clearing have changed across regions, within regions, and within countries. Although the overall trend seems hopeful, it remains to be seen whether the decline in forest clearing will persist as the global economy recovers. The report. The spreadsheet databases used for the analysis of the paper will soon be posted on the website of the Center for Global Development. Click here for website
Forest and Climate Change Consultant
Österreichische Bundesforste AG Consulting – deadline is at the end of January 2012
Österreichische Bundesforste AG Consulting, the international consulting division of the Austrian Federal Forests, is searching for a consultant “Forest and Climate Change”, based in Purkersdorf, Austria (close to Vienna). More
Chargé de projet VIE basé en RDC (Kinshasa)
ONF International – deadline for application is 31 January 2012
Dans le cadre du développement de ses activités en République Démocratique du Congo, ONF International prévoie de recruter un VIE chargé de projet. Le chargé de projet contribuera en particulier aux activités d'ONFI dans le développement de projets de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre liées à la déforestation et dégradation des forêts. L'expert sera ainsi amené à prendre en charge le suivi de plusieurs projets, tout en contribuant à certaines activités techniques (cartographie, inventaires forestiers, analyse économique et financière) selon ses motivations et compétences. Le poste à pourvoir sera basé à Kinshasa, sous la supervision de la Direction Climat à Paris et en collaboration avec les experts du siège d'ONFI. Plus
Senior Specialist Smart and Sustainable Land Use / REDD+
Solidaridad network – deadline for application is 1st of February 2012
The Senior Specialist in Smart and Sustainable Land Use/REDD+ will lead the Solidaridad Smart and Sustainable Land Use Change Agenda towards Payment for Environmental Services (PES) for farmers world-wide and liaise with Solidaridad network colleagues. More
Technical Specialist REDD+ Specialist (Anticipated Programmes – Transformational Investments Expert)
UNDP – deadline for application is 1st of February 2012
UNDP is seeking a technical specialist on REDD+ to be based in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. More
Short term consultancies in LAO PDR
Österreichische Bundesforste AG Consulting – deadline for application is 28 February 2012
Österreichische Bundesforste AG Consulting is seeking a number of short term national and international experts to be engaged in the project on Biodiversity Conservation, Protected Areas Management and Climate Change. More
Director General CIFOR
CIFOR – deadline for application is 29th of February 2012
CIFOR is looking for a Director General. The Director General is the Chief Executive Officer of the Center and is responsible to the Board of Trustees for the overall scientific leadership, operation and management of CIFOR. The Director General will ensure that programmes and objectives are properly developed to fulfill the mission of the Center. For at least the next two years, the Director General will also ensure the effectiveness and integrity of the Center's leadership of the CGIAR Research Programme on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (CRP6). More
Forests and climate change adaptation workshop in Asia
FAO, UNEP and RECOFTC
On 26 October 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and The Centre for People and Forests (RECOFTC) organized a “Meeting on forests and climate change adaptation in Asia.” Held in Bangkok, Thailand, the meeting sought to identify priority forest-based climate change adaptation measures in Asia, and suggest how these can be implemented. The meeting was attended by government forestry officials and representatives of various regional organizations, including the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and WWF. To read more about the meeting, click here. A policy brief was produced addressing forest-based climate change adaptation in Asia. To download the policy brief, click here
New research programme on sustainable land management
The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)
The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) has launched the international funding measure “Sustainable Land Management”. At the hand of various examples, the research projects funded by the measure will develop new models, technologies, system solutions and policy strategies. The projects have integrative, interdisciplinary and regional perspectives, enabling them to cope with the variety and complexity of the demands placed on land and natural resources. The research is policy-oriented and the projects will cooperate closely with regional scientists and stakeholders. The purpose is i) to identify key functions provided by natural resources that are indispensable to sustainable and climate-optimised land management and ii) is to identify development policies that can take into account the complexities of regional socio-economic, ecological and social conditions. The website
Environment, Natural Resources & Climate Change: Master’s Degree Programme in Environmental Policy and Law
University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, Joensuu, Finland
Master’s Degree Programme in Environmental Policy and Law is a new multidisciplinary program that combines high level teaching with working life oriented educational objectives. The programme provides advanced training in policies, law and environmental and social impact assessment for climate change and sustainable management of natural resources. The two year (120cp) programme is based on two alternative majors: Natural resources governance (MSocSc in Environmental Policy) and Environmental and Climate Change Law (MAdminSc in Environmental Law). All students are required to take courses in Natural Resources Governance, Environmental Law and Policy, as well as in Climate Change Law and Policy, before selecting their major. The programme launches autumn 2012 for the first time. The application period to the programme is open from 1st February until 15th March. More
Message to Parties – Launching the Green Climate Fund
UNFCCC & GEF
Nominations to the Board of the GCF. Parties are invited, through their regional groups and constituencies, to submit nominations for the position of member and alternate member of the Board of the Green Climate Fund. The agreed composition of the Board is 12 members from developing country Parties and 12 members from developed country Parties. Nominations should be sent to the interim secretariat of the Green Climate Fund by no later than 31 March 2012. More
New online resource - Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Contract Clauses Library
The Katoomba group
This web-based resource provides background information about PES contracting and the structure of a PES agreement, as well as basic information about 20 different types of clauses that are likely to be used in these contracts, and 33 example clauses. More
Exploring Multiple Benefits mapping toolbox
This customised ArcGIS 9.3.1 toolbox has been developed at UNEP-WCMC for REDD+ multiple benefits analyses. It provides both novice and experienced GIS users with a series of raster analysis tools to help identify, map and understanding the spatial relationship between ecosystem carbon stocks, other ecosystem services, biodiversity, land-use and pressures on natural resources. The resolution of the analysis is defined by the user. The toolbox is flexible, providing a set of tools that can be used interchangeably whilst using a consistent and efficient methodology that will decreases the time required to undertake such analyses. More