2. Tree measurement in general (DBH, height, crown, bark, stem quality, regeneration)

Anon. 1953. British Commonwealth Forest Terminology, Part I-Silviculture, Protection, Mensuration and Management, together with allied subjects.. London, UK, The Empire Forestry Association.

Some measurement related terminology described.


Avery, T.E. & Burkhart, H.E. 2002. Forest Measurements. In Inc. Series in Forest Resources., New York, McGraw-Hill.

Include forest measurement basics, direct and indirect measurement of the tree and stand attributes. It is considered as one of the best reference for the forest measurement.


Brack, C. & Wood, G. 1998. Forest Mensuration Resources. Department of Forestry, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Australian National University, Canberra. Australia. (available at http://sres.anu.edu.au/associated/mensuration/BrackandWood1998/INDEX.HTM.)

Introduction to forest sampling, measurement of the DBH, height, and the equipments used in forest inventory, sampling techniques and errors in forest inventory (very useful site).


Bratkovich, S.M. & Heiligmann, R.B. 2003. Measuring Standing Trees Determining Diameter- Merchantable Height-and Volume. Ohio State University. (available at http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/for-fact/0035.html.)

Described briefly about the measurement of diameter, merchantable height and volume of the standing trees. Fact Sheet F-35


Bristow, D. 1997. An Introduction to Forest Measurements from a field forester's perspective, interlinked with the site of forest mensuration. Australian National University. (available at http://www.webcom.com/duane/wood/measure.html.)

Brief checklists on the field procedure of forest measurement.


Bruce, D. & Schumacher, F.X. 1950. Forest Mensuration-Third Edition. Inc., New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

The text book includes direct measurement (diameter, height, crown cover, volume, age) and direct estimate by sampling and indirect estimate based on one or more independent variables.


Chapman, H.H. & Meyer, W.H. 1949. Forest Mensuration. Inc,. New York, McGraw-Hill Company.

The text book is dealt with elementary measurement techniques to statistical methods used in forest mensuration. It also dealt with the measurement of standing tree height, diameter, and the area measurement in forestry, instrument used and the errors in those measurement.


Curtis, D. 2003. Monitoring Natural Regeneration. Technical Advice.. Greening Australia NSW. (available at http://greeningaustralia.org.au/tech_advice/tech_monitoring.html.)
Husch, B. 1963. Forest Mensuration and Statistics. New York, The Ronald Press company.

Fundamentals of the measurements, statistical methods applied to forest mensuration; Forest measurement includes from time, weight, volume, height, diameter, crown cover, stand and growth measurements and inventory method; statistical methods include basic concepts of sampling and graphic presentation.


Jerram, M.R.K. & Bourne, R. 1963. Elementary Forest Mensuration. 126pp, London. UK, Thomas Murby and Company.

The theory of tree measurement, measurement of a standing tree, volume tables, yield tables, increment of individual trees and the measurement of forests. This book describe simple means of measurement and also describe the error in measurement.


Laar, A.V. & Akca, A. 1997. Forest Mensuration. 418pp, Goettingen, Germany, Cuvillier Verlag.

The text book deals with the basic principal of the forest mensuration: statistical prerequisites, Instruments, single tree measurements and measurement of stand, volume table, taper and biomass and growth and yield models. It also touches sampling techniques and remote sensing in forest mensuration. In single tree measurements, techniques to measure age, diameter, height, stem form and taper, tree volume, bark thickness, tree crown and foliage, and the growth of single trees are described.


Martens, S.N. & Ustin, S. L. 1991. Measurement of Tree Canopy architecture. In International Journal of Remote Sensing, 12, 1525-1545. (available at http://www.cstars.ucdavis.edu/papers/pdf/martensetal1991a.pdf.)

A stratified sampling method is devised to measure the three-dimensional geometry of 16 walnut trees which had received irrigation treatments of either 100 or 33 percent of evapotranspirational (ET) demand for the previous two years. Graphic reconstructions of the three-dimensional geometry were verified by 58 independent measurements. The distributions of stem- and leaf-size classes, lengths, and angle classes were determined and used to calculate leaf area index (LAI), stem area, and biomass.


Martin, J. 1990. Measuring trees and estimating volume. 8pp, University of Wisconsin. USA, Lake States Woodlands G3332. (available at http://www1.uwex.edu/ces/pubs/pdf/G3332.PDF.)

It deals with measurement of DBH and Height and equipment used to measure the tree attributes. The estimation of the tree volume using volume table and stand volume is described.


Oderwald, G. R. & Johnson, E. J. 1999. Measuring Standing Trees and Logs. Publication 420-560: 7pp, Virginia University, USA, Virginia Polytech Institute, Knowledge for the Commonwealth. (available at http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/forestry/420-560/420-560.html.)

This document covers the measurement of standing tree attributes: height, diameter, and volume measurement and measurement of logs.


Phillip, M.S. 1994. Measuring Trees and Forests. UK, CAB International.

The book cover the principle of measuring the single trees as well as forest stand. It discusses about the possible sources of errors, statistical principles, and also touch about forest inventory concepts. The book has separate section for advanced reader also.


Slusher, J.P. 2000. How to Measure Trees and Logs. School of Forestry- Fisheries and Wildlife- University of Missouri-Columbia, Agricultural publication G05050. (available at http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/forestry/g05050.htm.)

Described the method of measuring DBH, Height for the calculation of volume of standing tree as well as logs.