Colbert, K.C., Larsen, D.R. & James R.L. 2002. Height-Diameter Equations for Thirteen Midwestern Bottomland Hardwood Species. In North. J. Appl. For., 19, ( (4)), pp 171-176. (available at

In this study, the authors present a set of height-diameter equations for 13 riparian tree species using data obtained from bottomland hardwood forests along the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, and Des Moines rivers. Nonlinear regression techniques are used to develop the equations. The resulting equations provide a reasonable means of predicting unknown tree heights, given dbh, for these species (from Abstract).

Ek, Alan R.; Birdsall, Earl T. & Spears, R. J. 1981. Total and merchantable tree height equations for Lake States tree species. Staff paper series- 27. 41pp, College of Forestry and the Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Agriculture, Forestry, and Home Economics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Total and merchantable tree height estimation equations were developed for Lake States species. The equations are intended for usage in forest survey inventory compilations for tree product yield and for projections with growth projection model. Basic data sets plus model forms and model fitting considerations are described.

Kariuki , M. 2002. Height Estimation in Complete Stem Analysis Using Annual Radial Growth Measurements. In Oxford Journal of Forestry, Vol. 75, ( (1)), pp 63-74. (available at

A tree annual radial growth (TARG) method for estimating the position where annual height growth ceased within a log section was developed using annual ring widths from stem analysis data. The performance of this method on height estimation in complete stem analysis was assessed against four other documented methods at 1.5 m and 3 m sampling intervals.

Myers, C. & Belcher, D.M. 1981. Estimating Total-Tree Height for Upland Oaks and Hickories in Southern Illinois.

An equation to predict total-tree height from merchantable length is developed for hardwoods. Y=30+0.85x, with R2=0.87

Rennols, K. 1995. Forest Height Growth Modeling. In Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 71, ( 3),

Special Issue on growth and yield estimation from successive forest inventories, selected papers from the IUFRO Conference, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 June 1993. The paper dealt with model error structures and use of corresponding fitting criterion. A simpler formulation is used to obtain descriptive representation of a complete set of height growth trajectories from Sitka spruce sample plots (from abstract).

Skovsgaard, J.P., Johannsen, V.K. & Vanclay, J.K. 1998. Accuracy and precision of two laser dendrometers. In Oxford Journal of Forestry, Vol. 71, ( (2)), pp 131- 140. (available at

Two commercial laser dendrometers were tested under controlled and field conditions, and contrasted with alternative instruments. Testing focused on height measurement, but also considered distance and remote diameter measurements. Both laser instruments gave very precise estimates, but showed some bias. Website contains abstract.

Thornley, J. 1999. Modeling Stem Height and Diameter Growth in Plants. In Annals of Botany, Vol. 84, ( 2), pp. 195-205.

Model of stem height and diameter growth in plants is developed. This is formulated and implemented within the framework of an existing tree plantation growth model: the ITE Edinburgh Forest Model. It is proposed that the height: diameter growth rate ratio is a function of a within-plant allocation ratio determined by the transport-resistance model of partitioning, multiplied by a foliage turgor pressure modifier.

Wensel, L.C., Meerschaert, W. J. & Biging, G.S. 1987. Tree height and diameter growth models for Northern California conifers. 20pp, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) / Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources,

Diameter and height relationship of the selected 6 coniferous species.