Criteria & indicators processes

Following UNCED, regional criteria and indicators processes have developed a more widely shared understanding of the main thematic elements of sustainable forest management. Approximately 150 countries have been participating in one or more of the nine regional criteria and indicator processes. Several of these processes (e.g. ITTO, Montreal process, FOREST EUROPE) established regional and/or coordinated national reporting mechanisms on status and progress towards SFM, based on the C&I.

Nine regional C&I processes


The United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) developed the non-legally binding instrument on all types of forests adopted in 2007 by the UN General Assembly, specifying four Global Goals as well as seven Thematic Elements of SFM, based on the most common criteria of SFM of C&I processes.

Criteria: Thematic Elements of SFM (UNFF Forest Instrument)

  • extent of forest resources
  • biological diversity
  • forest health and vitality
  • protective functions of forests
  • productive functions of forests
  • socio-economic functions
  • legal policy and institutional framework
last updated:  Thursday, January 22, 2015