Tools - Climate Change for Forest Policy-Makers

This tool box involves four stages of a policy process model:

The major strength of this simplified four-stage model is that it reduces the complexity of policy-making to manageable, analytical units, thus facilitating understanding. It also emphasizes that the integration of climate change into NFPs is an iterative process. New developments, experiences and lessons learned need to be reflected in revisions of policies and implementation arrangements. Understanding the process as a cycle also encourages a continuous and constructive dialogue amongst the many stakeholders involved in different stages and at different levels. It is thus important to recognize that processes related to forests and climate change are and need to be well embedded in the overall national governance system. 

Evidence and analysis 

The policy challenges and issues are identified and related evidence is collected and analyzed.

Planning process

Together with key stakeholders, priority issues are identified, discussed, and response proposals are developed, negotiated and decided. Agreed strategic directions are made legitimate through actions by the government (e.g. by a formal announcement of a policy, amendment of legislation) and by other stakeholders.


Policies, strategies and agreed actions are implemented through the administration, executive agencies, and other public and private stakeholders at national and sub-national levels.

Monitoring and evaluation

Data are collected on the implementation of planned actions, and the results are evaluated. This allows the identification of deviations from objectives and planned actions - and corrections, if warranted. Evaluation of performance (whether goals were appropriate and reasonable, and whether action has been cost-effective) is usually done periodically or as the need arises, using monitoring data as an information source. 

last updated:  Friday, February 10, 2012