The Republic of Armenia is bordered by Georgia on the north, Azerbaijan on the east, Iran on the south, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhichevan on the south-west, and Turkey on the west. It lies in the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas. The land area is about 29 740 km2, mostly in very mountainous uplands with an average elevation of about 1 800 m, extending as high as 4 090 m on Mount Aragats, the highest point in the republic.
Armenia is landlocked but contains about 100 mountain lakes, the largest of which is Lake Sevan, located in the north-east. It covers about five percent of the country and is a popular resort area. Many of the country´s rivers flow into Lake Sevan. The main outlet is the Hrazdan River, which flows south to join the Aras (known in Armenia as the Arax) River, Armenia's largest and longest river, which separates Armenia from Turkey.
The climate of Armenia varies by altitude but is predominantly dry and continental, with hot summers and moderate winters. January temperatures usually range from -12 to -5° C. July temperatures average about 10° C in the mountains and about 25° C elsewhere. Precipitation varies by location and is heaviest in autumn. Armenia receives a yearly rainfall of about 200 to 800 mm, rising with elevation. Mountainous areas receive the most precipitation, both in the form of rain and snow. The most arid region of the country is along the Aras River.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.