The Czech Republic, located in central Europe, is bordered by Poland to the north, Germany to the north-west and west, Austria to the south, and Slovakia to the east. The area of the country is 78 870 km2. It is about 490 km from east to west and about 280 km from north to south.
The Czech Republic consists of five main geographic regions: the Bohemian Mountains, the Sudeten Mountains, the Bohemian Basin, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands and the Moravian Lowlands.
The Bohemian Mountains in the western part of the country include the Ore Mountains in the north-west and the Bohemian Forest in the west and south-west. The Sudeten Mountains are located in the north and form part of the border with Poland. The Bohemian Basin, a fertile region of low plains and rolling hills, is located in north-central Bohemia. Several major rivers, including the Elbe, Ohre, and Vltava, flow through the basin.
The Bohemian-Moravian Highlands dominate the central part of the Republic. High plains, plateaus, and low hills make up this largely agricultural region. The Sazava, the Vltava, and several smaller rivers drain the highlands.
The Moravian Lowlands occupy the south-eastern part of the country. The Morava and Oder are the main rivers. A section of the Carpathian Mountains extends along the Czech-Slovak border.
The Czech Republic has a humid continental climate with warm summers and cold winters. Temperatures vary greatly by elevation. The average temperature range in Prague is -5.3° C to -0.4° C in January and 11.8° C to 23.3° C in July, but the higher elevations are colder. Annual precipitation ranges from 410 mm (at Prague) to 1 030 mm in the mountains, with much of it occurring in the summer months.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.