The Republic of Estonia lies on the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. It is bounded on the north by the Gulf of Finland (an extension of the Baltic Sea), on the east by Russia, on the south by Latvia and on the west by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga. Estonia is the smallest of the Baltic states with an area of 45 227 km2.
Estonia is chiefly a low-lying plain, with some hills in the central and southern regions. Wetlands and lakes cover approximately 25 percent of the country. Lake Peipus and the Narva River form much of Estonia's eastern boundary. The country has more than 1500 islands, the largest of which is Saaremaa Island.
Estonia generally has cool summers and cold winters, although mild for being so far north. Temperatures rarely exceed 18°C in summer and often stay below freezing from mid-December to late February. Annual precipitation is moderate, ranging from 500 to 700 mm, with July and August being the wettest months.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.