Georgia, located in the Caucasus Mountains and on the east coast of the Black Sea, is bounded by Russia on the north and by Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Turkey on the south. It has an area of about 69 700 km2.
Georgia has both high mountains and fertile lowlands. The Caucasus Mountains border Russia on the north and have a number of peaks exceeding 4 500 m, including Mount Shkhara (5201 m), Georgia¿s highest peak. The Lesser Caucasus mountains occupy the southern part of the country and are mostly below 3 000 m. The Surami Mountains connect the main and Lesser Caucasus mountains through the central part of the country. To the west, the country slopes down to the Black Sea. The Kura River runs generally eastward through Georgia and Azerbaijan into the Caspian Sea, while the Rioni drains into the Black Sea to the west.
The climate along the Black Sea coast is warm and humid. To the east, however, the climate is more continental, with cold winters and hot summers. The mountainous regions have cold, wet winters and cool summers, with perpetual snowfields on the higher peaks. Annual precipitation along the coast often exceeds 2 000 mm, while on the eastern plains it measures between 400 and 700 mm.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.