The Republic of Croatia, located on the Balkan Peninsula, is bordered on the north by Slovenia and Hungary, on the east and south by Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the east by Serbia and Montenegro, and by the Adriatic Sea on the west. The total area is 56 540 km2.
Croatia consists of two main regions, Dalmatia and the Pannonian Plains. Dalmatia, the coastal region between the Adriatic Sea and Bosnia-Herzegovina, has rocky cliffs and little fertile soil. The fertile Pannonian Plains lie in the north-eastern part of the country, bordering Hungary. They are drained by Croatia's two main rivers, the Drava (Drau) and Sava rivers, which in turn flow into the Danube. Several parallel ranges of the Dinaric Alps extend through the centre of Croatia. The coast has many bays and islands.
Dalmatia has a Mediterranean climate with mild, rainy winters and warm, dry summers. In winter, the temperature rarely falls below freezing. However, a cold, gusty wind called a bora sometimes blows down from the mountains in autumn and winter. The Pannonian Plains have a more continental climate, with dry, hot summers and cold winters, often with a freezing wind called a kosava. The average temperature in Zagreb is 0° C in January and about 24° C in July, while in Dubrovnik the average is about 9° C in January and 25° C in July. Annual precipitation along the coast is about 760 mm.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.