The Kingdom of Cambodia is located in south-east Asia between latitude 10° to 15° north and longitude 102° to 108° east. It covers a surface area of 181 035 km2. It is bordered on the north-east by Laos, on the east and south-east by Vietnam, on the south-west by the Gulf of Thailand, and on the west and north-west by Thailand. In the rough form of a rectangle, it is about 500 km long by 400 km wide.
The country has a large alluvial central plain, surrounded by mountains and plateaus except in the south-east and along part of the coast. Only a few points exceed 1 000 m in elevation. They are located primarily in the extreme north-east in the Cardamom Mountains and Elephant Mountain.
The highest point is Phnom Kchual (1 843 m). The area between 500 and 1 000 m constitutes only about 5 percent of the territory. The Mekong River crosses the country north to south and connects with a depression occupied by large lakes, the Tônlé Sap (Great Lake), the level and surface area of which varies (from 2 600 to 10 400 km2 in size) due to flooding during the rainy season.
The climate is typically tropical and subject to monsoons. The temperature at Phnom Penh averages about 29° C throughout the year. The dry season is defined by the number of months having less than 50 mm of rain. Phnom Penh gets around 1 000 to 1 500 mm of precipitation with 4 or 8 months of dry season. On the other hand, the coast on the gulf of Thailand is very wet, 3 000 to 4 000 mm of precipitation annually, with a short dry season of 1 to 2 months, while the area to the east of the Mekong, with 2 000 mm of precipitation and more, has a dry season of 4 to 5 months.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.