The Republic of Lithuania, on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea in north-eastern Europe, is bounded on the north by Latvia; on the east and south by Belarus; on the south-east by Poland and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast; and on the west by the Baltic Sea. It is the largest of the Baltic states with an area of about 65 300 km2.
The country is low-lying with little relief. Most of the land lies below 200 m in elevation. The central lowlands rise slightly to a hilly region in the west and to highlands in the east and south-east. Lithuania has about 3 000 small lakes and numerous marshes and swamps as the result of past continental glaciation. There are many rivers, many of them small. The country's longest and largest river is the Nemunas (Neman).
The climate of Lithuania is moderated by marine influences, but becomes more continental to the east. In January, the coldest month, the temperature averages from about -3° C on the seacoast to -6° C in the east. In July, the hottest month, temperatures average 16° C near the sea and 18° C in the east. Average annual precipitation ranges from less than 600 mm in the centre of the country to more than 850 mm on the coast.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.