The Kingdom of Norway, located in northern Europe on the western and northern sides of the Scandinavian Peninsula, is bounded on the north by the Barents Sea, an arm of the Arctic Ocean, on the north-east by Finland and Russia, on the east by Sweden, on the south by Skagerrak Strait and the North Sea, and on the west by the Norwegian Sea. It has a land area of 385 639 km2, including its possessions. The northern third of the country lies above the Arctic Circle. Territorial possessions include the Svalbard archipelago (62 920 km2), the island of Jan Mayen (380 km2) and Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Extending along the western side of the country is a mountainous plateau is covered largely by bare rock that was smoothed and rounded by ancient glaciers. Glaciers also formed many lakes and deep valleys, and the spectacular fjords along the west coast. Considerable area remains in glaciers and permanent icefields. Mountain ranges include the Kjolen range in the north along the boarder with Sweden, the Dovre Mountains, extending in an east-west direction, and the Long Mountains in the south. The Jotunheimen range of the Long Mountains includes Galdhopiggen, northern Europe's tallest mountain at 2 469 m.
In the south-east are lowlands along the middle and lower valleys of the Glama River and several other rivers. While hilly, the relief is much gentler than the mountains. There are also lowlands around Trondheim at the lower ends of several wide, flat valleys.
Norway has a maritime climate influenced by the North Atlantic Drift, an extension of the Gulf Stream. Thus, particularly along the coast, it has a climate much milder than would normally be expected for a land at such a high latitude. Winters are mild and summers are normally cool. At Bergen the average temperature range in January is -1° to 3° C while the average range in July is 12° to 19° C. The average annual precipitation at Bergen is about 1 930 mm. In the interior, a more continental climate prevails; winters are colder, and summers are warmer. At Oslo the average temperature range in January is -7° to -2° C while the average range in July is 13° to 22° C. Precipitation is generally less than on the coast, averaging about 730 mm annually. In the far north the climate is subarctic.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.