The Republic of Tajikistan, located in south-eastern Central Asia, is bordered on the north by Kyrgyzstan, on the north and west by Uzbekistan, on the east by China, and on the south by Afghanistan. Tajikistan covers an area of 143,100 km2.
Over 90 percent of Tajikistan is mountainous, and over half lies above 3 000 m. The highest peaks are snow-covered all year. The region serves as a connecting point for several of the world's highest mountain ranges. The towering Pamirs rise in the south-east. The Alay and Tian Shan mountain ranges stretch across much of the rest of the country. Foothills and steppes occupy the western third of the country. Other lowland areas are confined to river valleys in the south-west and to the extreme north, where a finger like strip of territory extends into the fertile Fergana (Farghona) Valley.
Fedchenko Glacier, one of the world´s longest glaciers, extends 77 km in the Pamirs. The major rivers include the Amu Darya along part of the southern border, the Syr Darya in the Fergana valley in the north-east and the Vakhsh, Kafirnigan, and Zeravshan.
Earthquakes often occur throughout the region.
Summers in the valleys are typically long, hot, and dry while winters in the highlands are long and very cold. Temperatures in the valleys average 2° C in January and 30° C in July. Temperatures in the highlands average -20° C in January and 22° C in July. In parts of the eastern Pamirs, winter temperatures can drop to -60° C while summer temperatures in the lowlands can reach highs of 48° C. Tajikistan receives annual precipitation of less than 200 mm in the lowlands.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.