Turkmenistan, located in west central Asia, is bordered on the north by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, on the east by Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, on the south by Afghanistan and Iran, and on the west by the Caspian Sea. Turkmenistan covers an area of 488 000 km2.
More than 80 percent of the country is occupied by one of the largest sand deserts in the world, the Garagum (or Karakum). The elevation is 500 m or less. The Kopet-Dag (Köpetdag) mountains stretch along the southern border of the country. The Amu Darya river flows into Turkmenistan from the mountains of Tajikistan. It flows through eastern Turkmenistan into Uzbekistan, where it drains into the Aral Sea. Turkmenistan´s other rivers include the Murgab and the Tedzhen.
The climate of Turkmenistan is desert continental, with cold winters and very hot summers. For most of the country, the average daily temperature in January ranges from -6° to 5° C, while in July it is 27° to 32° C. Average annual precipitation ranges from 80 to 400 mm, although two-thirds of the country receives 150 mm or less.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.