The Republic of Uganda, located in east central Africa, covers a land area of 241 040 km2 between latitudes 1° 30' S and 4° N and between longitudes 29° 30' and 35° E. It is bounded on the north by Sudan, on the east by Kenya, on the south by Tanzania and Rwanda, and on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Physically, the country consists of a plateau, generally between 1 200 and 1 500 m, dissected by numerous streams. In the west, this plateau is interrupted by an escarpment forming Lakes Edward and Albert, with the upthrust of the Ruwenzori Mountains (5 110 m) in the centre, between the lakes. In the extreme north the plateau extends across the Nile into the district of West Nile. The south-west is very hilly and higher than the rest of the country. In the east, along the border with Kenya, three high mountains, Elgon (4 321 m), Kadam (3 068 m) and Moroto (3 083 m), dominate.
The Nile divides the country in two parts, flowing from Lake Victoria at Jinja through Lake Kyoga to the northern tip of Lake Albert, and then north to the Sudan. A significant proportion of the southern part of Uganda contains swamps.
The climate is tropical but mild because of the generally high altitude. The temperature ranges from about 16° to 29° C, with 1 000 mm or more rainfall over most of the country. In the extreme north-east, in Karamoja, there is a small zone with less than 500 mm of rainfall.
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.