Riparian or riverine forests
Stands of deciduous and evergreen species over 15 m and up to 30 m high, fringing river banks and the outer zones of the bigger islands in the northern region, especially in the swamp areas. A grass stratum is usually absent or consists of a few shade-tolerant species. Prominent species in the dense canopy are Acacia nigresoans, A. albida, Lonchocarpus capassa, Diospyros mespiliformis, and Combretum imberbe, occasionally with Trichilia emetica (along the Chobe River), Ficus spp. and Acacia tortilis. The shrub layer, less than 4 m high, is often dense and includes shrub forms of the tree species already listed and others such as Grewia spp., Dichrostachys cinra, Rhus tenuinervis, Maytanus spp., etc. This type of forest only remains in the form of extremely narrow belts (e. g., less than 100 m along the Chobe River) and corresponds mostly to steep slopes hindering elephant browsing and concentrations of big game. Where the canopy is more open, there is dense undergrowth consisting largely of regeneration of Acacia spp. (Blair and McKay, 1968; FAO, 1972).