Country cases and procedures

The information in this section aims at facilitating access to some country specific information. Although this site is updated on a regular basis, FAO does not maintain a database on EIA (and particularly EIA in forestry). Much more information is available in the Web sites and gateways given on the previous page.

This is work in progress. We welcome suggestions and further information.

CLEIAA - Capacity Development and Linkages for Environmental Impact Assessment in Africa (CLEIAA) is a regional African initiative of governments, donors and other partners, begun in 2001. The intent of CLEIAA is to "jump-start" the implementation of environmental impact assessment capacity development and linkage building in Africa.


Forest-pasture-Environmental legislation

Arctic countries

Guidelines for environmental impact assessment.

The Arctic Environmental protection strategy was adopeted in 1991 by Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden Russia and the United States.

How much does EIA contribute to biodiversity conservation in Australia? EIA frameworks in most countries are procedural rather than substantive. They require impacts to be predicted, but they don't prevent those impacts from occurring. In Australia, for example, even in the State of New South Wales which has legal triggers for mandatory EIA, third-party standing to enforce them, and a special court to hear proceedings, there are forestry operations for which mandatory EIA predicted severe local impacts on biodiversity, but which went ahead nevertheless. Some of these operations were halted through public litigation, but under species-conservation law, not EIA provisions. (paper presented at an IAIA conference)


EIA of Itapiranga logging plan

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) of forest management in South Cameroon. The objective of this Tropenbos project is to devise an environmental impact assessment (EIA) methodology adapted to forest management planning.

Environmental assessment as a new tool for sustainable management? An application in south Cameroon rain forest region.
This paper gives a short presentation of the way EA can be integrated into the forest management procedure and the results of a trial to implement this tool in a south-Cameroon forest region is described. The experiment was carried out at two levels: (1) for a Master Management Plan of a 167 000 ha forest; (2) for two Village Territory Management Plans. The approaches and techniques are described giving specific attention to the negotiation process with stakeholders. The main results and drawbacks of the applied methodology are evaluated and a renewed framework for further integration of EA in sustainable forest management is proposed.

EIA of the forestry component of Edea Paper Mill rehabilitation Operation. Cameroon. SECA, France

Forestry and Environmental Assessment in Canada: A Case Study of Federal Mismanagement.
This study refers to a conflict in EIA requirement and application in Canada in the case of a Manitoba forest company holding a forest management licence for over 11 million ha. (paper presented at an IAIA conference)

Central and Eastern Europe

Sofia Initiative- Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment of Finland's National Forest Programme
The objective of the environmental impact assessment of Finland's National Forest Programme was to produce coherent data to support decision-making in the implementation of the national forest programme. Several different types of impacts were examined covering: socio-economic effects; biological diversity; nutrient load; and carbon balance. (paper presented at an IAIA conference)

As part of the government¿s application of the CBD the Department of Environment (with support from UNDP and GEF) is developing a Fiji Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan. Provisional areas relevant to forestry include the promotion of SFM, the enactement of EIA for new logging and plantation areas, and strengthening the capacity for enforcement of the National Code of Logging Practice.


EIA of Joint Forest Management Programme in Orissa, 1998 (SIDA and Scandiaconsult)


Summary Environmental Impact Assessment. Rural Access Road project. August 2002.

Recognizing the potential negative impacts of logging on the forest stand, the Environmental Quality Act 1974 was amended to include Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in 1985 and the order came into force in 1987 which prescribed for activities that involved forest land uses. "Forest Harvesting Guidelines" and "Forest Engineering Plan", as well as the regulations in forest road construction such as the 'Standard Road Specifications' have provisions for the protection of the environment which are similar to those of the EIA. However, in order to streamline and ensure more effective implementation of forestry activities affecting the environment, EIA guidelines are currently being formulated specifically for the various forestry activities by the relevant agencies. In fact, EIA Guidelines for forest harvesting in the natural forest has been developed by a Working Committee on EIA for Forest Harvesting of Natural Forest in Peninsular Malaysia with members from the relevant forestry and environmental agencies. (source: Inside ITTO- Timber Certification 1998)

Mediterranean region
Regional program for environmental impact assessment in the METAP countries. the World Bank and Tunis International Center for Environmental Technologies(CITET)
A pilot project for the institutional strengthening of the system for evaluating impact on the environment in the Mediterranean region. The project covers 15 Mediterranean countries: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cyprus, Croatia, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Lybia, Morocco, the Palestinian Authority, Syria, Slovenia, Turkey and Tunisia. The project Web site is an important gateway to information on EIA in the participating countries (for example, EIA legal frameworks) and EIA tools. Not specific to forestry.

Sustainable Forestry Investment Promotion Project- WB

Papua New Guinea
Environmental and Social Impact assessment of logging operations in the Vanimo Timber area, Sandaun province. This assessment was conducted in May 1999 and aimed at determining compliance with the PNG Logging Code of practice, and assessing the logging company's contractual obligations.

Forestry and conservation project in Papua New Guinea
Activities (with a loan from the International bank for Reconstruction and Development)will include: operate effective environmental impact assessment mechanisms and develop a community-based environmental monitoring programme.

Participatory Research as a Means to Achieve Sustainability in the Logging Industry of the Upper Purus River
The Government of Peru is trying to promote sustainable use of the resources in the region. It will do extensive research and implement an EIA to assess the potential influence of new regulations and land zoning. The EIA process is seen as a fundamental factor for the overall environmental management of the project. The research is conducted with the communities through consultation and the promotion of participatory processes that allow the local population to influence the outcome of the project, the design and acceptance of the land-zoning, the promotion of agreed management strategies for the timber activity and the support for the idea of conservation. This project will help to demonstrate in a pragmatic way the viability of sustainable natural resource management with the participation of indigenous populations, providing a model for the application of similar strategies in other areas appropriate for rainforest regions. (paper presented at an IAIA conference)

South Africa
Strategic Environmental Assessment for Stream flow reduction in South Africa ( a way of enhancing decision making)

In South Africa, there has long been conflict over allocation and use of water. Forestry is declared a stream flow reduction activity and therefore forestry development in certain water-stressed areas has been limited or halted. in 1997, The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry embarked on a strategic environmental assessment for forestry to provide a framework for decision making which would consider national and regional water needs and the cumulative impacts of forestry development.

Environmental Impact Assessment Procedures
Forestry activities requiring EIA (mandatory)
o Timber logging and processing
o Forest plantation and afforestation and introduction of new species
o selective removal of single commercial tree species
o pest management
Related activities also in the mandatory list are wildlife utilization and ecotourism

United Kingdom
UK Forestry Commission.

Undertaking an Environmental Impact assessment in forestry and preparing an environmental statement.


UK. Forestry Commission.

Environmental Impact Assessment of forestry projects


Northern Ireland
Background to the law about Environmental Assessment
In 1989, to comply with a European Community Directive (85/337/EEC), the first Environmental Assessment (Afforestation) Regulations (SR 1989 No 226) were introduced. These Regulations required anyone applying for a grant for new planting to carry out an Environmental Assessment if the work was likely to have a significant effect on the environment. These 1989 Regulations were revoked in December 1998 and replaced by the Environmental Assessment (Forestry) Regulations 1998 (SR1998 No 437). These Regulations required anyone who wished to carry out a relevant project (i.e. afforestation and forestry roads or quarries) that might have a significant effect on the environment, to obtain consent for the work from the Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland. If consent for the work was required, the applicant had to provide an Environmental Statement (see Definitions) in support of the application.

United States

Generic Environmental Impact statement study on Timber Harvesting and Forest Management in Minnesota.


Environmental Impact Assessment of the Charcoal Production and Utilization System in Zambia

In this report, the environmental impact of the charcoal production system in central Zambia is analysed. The work was carried out in cooperation between the University of Zambia, the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development in Lusaka and the Stockholm Environment Institute and funded by SIDA. The project constituted an important part of a research programme called the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Project, which aims at investigating many aspects of charcoal utilization in Zambia. The major health effects of charcoal production appear to be associated with wood cutting and preparation of kilns, where the risks for cutting, strains and back problems appear to be high. The potential environmental problems associated with charcoal use are exposure of users to high carbon monoxide concentration levels during cooking and emission of relatively large quantities of nitrogen oxides. The latter adds to the burden of nitrogen oxides emissions by industry and motor vehicles.

last updated:  Wednesday, November 9, 2005