Selected references on biotechnology and genetic modification

Biotechnology in the context of global wood supply and demand

Wood supply and demand outlook studies

  • FAO.Global Outlook Studies
  • ABARE - Jaakko Pöyry. 1999.Global Outlook for Plantations,ABARE Research Report 99.9, Canberra, Australia.
  • Love, G., Yainshet, A. & Grist, P. 1999.Forest Products. Longterm Consumption Projections For Australia,ABARE, Australia.
  • Whiteman, A. & Brown, C. 1999. The potential role of forest plantations in meeting future demands for industrial wood products. Int. For. Rev., Vol 1(3): 143-152.


  • Biotechnology, tree improvement and wood supply

  • Li, Bailian and Steven McKeand, eds. 2004. Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding in the Age of Genomics: Progress and Future, IUFRO Joint Conference of Division 2, Conference Proceedings.
  • Fenning, T.M. & Gershenzon, J. 2002. Where will the wood come from? Plantation forests and the role of biotechnology, Trends in Biotechnology, Vol.20(7): 273-313. Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • Sutton, W.R.J. 2002. The future for wood - will there be demand for wood in the future? Warren Forestry Ltd.
  • Sedjo, R. 2001. Biotechnology's Potential Contribution to Global Wood Supply and Forest Conservation, Discussion Paper 01-51, Ressources for the future, Washington.
  • Bird, H. 2000. Getting to the root of the GE tree debate. Pulp&Paper International , Vol. 42(3), Viewpoint.
  • Sedjo, R. 1999. Biotechnology and Planted Forests: Assessment of Potential and Possibilities, Discussion Paper 00-06, Ressources for the future, Washington.
  • Sutton, W.R.J. 1999. Does the world need plantations? , Annual reprt, Evergreen Forests Limited.
  • Haines, R.J. & Martin, B.E. 1997.Biotechnology and the sustainable production of tropical timber.Forest Genetic Resources, No. 25. FAO, Rome.
  • FAO. 1994.Biotechnology in forest tree improvement with special references to developing countries.Forestry Paper No. 118, based on the work of André Mayer Fellow, Russell Haines, Rome.
  • Haines, R.J. 1994.A suspended wooden road, Colombia. Photo: Rodrigo Andrés Gamba BlancoBiotechnology in forest tree improvement: research directions and priorities.Unasylva, No. 177, Vol. 45 - 1994/2. FAO, Rome.
  • Franclet, A. 1989. Biotechnology and the Genetic Improvement of Trees, In Plant Biotechnologies for Developing Countries, Workshop Resource Papers: 255-261, CTA-FAO.

    Biotechnology in forestry: general references

  • FAO. 2004. Preliminary review of biotechnology in forestry, including genetic modification. Forest Genetic Resources Working Paper FGR/59E. Forest Resources Development Service, Forest Resources Division. Rome, Italy.
  • Dendrome. A forest tree genome database.
  • FAO. Web site on Biotechnology in Food and Agriculture: Forestry, Biotechnology in the forest sector.
  • Walter, C. & Fenning, T. Deployment of genetically-engineered trees in plantation forestry - An issue of concern? The science and politics of genetically modified tree plantations, In Walter, C. & Carson, M. (edts). 2004. Plantation Forest Biotechnology for the 21st Century. Research Signpost, Kerala, India.
  • Bhalerao, Nilsson, O. & Sandberg, G. 2003. Out of the woods: forest biotechnology, enters the genomic era, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Vol. 14(2): 206-213, Elsevier.
  • Tree Biotechnology 2003. Scientific Programme and abstracts of the Conference, 7-12 June 2003, Umea, Sweden.
  • Espinel, S. & Ritter, E. (Ed) 2002. Proceedings of the International Congress Sustainable Forestry, Wood Products & Biotechnology. BIOFOR-02. 11-14 November 2002, DFA-AFA Press, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
  • Gartland, K.M.A., Kellison, R.C., Fenning, T.M. 2002. Forest Biotechnology and Europe's Forests of the Future, A Challenge Document for presentation and discussion at Forest Biotechnology in Europe: Impending Barriers, Policy and Implications, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • Biotech Branches Out. 2001. A look at the opportunities and impacts of forest biotechnology. Proceedings from a workshop. Atlanta, USA.
  • Krutovskii, K.V. & Neale, D.B. 2001.Forest genomics for conserving adaptive genetic diversity,FAO, Forest Resources Development Service, Forestry Department, Working Paper FGR/3, Rome.
  • <Tree Biotechnology in the New Millenium. 2001. Skamania Lodge, Stevenson, Washington.

  • Wang X.R. & Szmidt, A.E. 2001. Molecular markers in population genetics of forest trees. Scand. Journ. of For. Res., Vol. 16 (3): 199-220.

  • Yanchuk, A.D. 2001.The role and implications of biotechnological tools in forestry.Unasylva, No. 204, vol 52: 53-61. FAO, Rome.
  • FAO. 2000.Biotechnology and the forestry sector,Unasylva, No. 203, Vol. 51 - 2000/4. FAO, Rome.
  • Merkle, S.A. & Dean, J.F.D. 2000. Forest tree biotechnology, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Vol.11(3): 298-302, Elsevier.
  • Butcher, P.A., Glaubitz, J.C. & Moran, G.F. 1999.Applications for microsatellite markers in the domestication and conservation of forest trees.Forest Genetic Resources, No 27. FAO, Rome.

  • Espinel, S. & Ritter, E. (Ed) 1999. Proceedings of the meeting Applications of Biotechnology to Forest Genetics. BIOFOR-99. 22-25 September 1999, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.

  • European Union. 1999.Which DNA marker for which purpose?Abstracts from a conference. July 1999. Oxford, U.K.
  • Forest Biotechnology '99.Final compendium of the research project Development, optimisation and validation of molecular tools for assessment of biodiversity in forest trees - European Union DGXII Biotechnology FW IV Research Programme.

  • Sederoff, R. R. 1999. Tree genomes: what will we understand about them by the year 2020? In C. Matyas (ed.) Forest genetics and sustainability. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • Szmidt, A.E. & Wang, X.R. 1999. Genetic markers in forest genetics. In C. Matyas (ed.) Forest genetics and sustainability. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • Ledig, F.T. 1989. The Relevance of Biotechnology to Forestry in Developing Countries, In Plant Biotechnologies for Developing Countries, Workshop Resource Papers: 255-261, CTA-FAO.

    Genetic modification in forestry: general references

  • FAO. 2004. Preliminary review of biotechnology in forestry, including genetic modification. Forest Genetic Resources Working Paper FGR/59E. Forest Resources Development Service, Forest Resources Division. Rome, Italy.
  • Lang, C. 2004. Genetically modified trees - The ultimate threat to forests, World Rainforest Movement and Friends of the Earth. Montevideo, Uruguay.
  • El-Lakany, M. H. 2004. Are genetically modified trees a threat to forests? Unasylva, No. 217, Vol. 55: 45-47. FAO, Rome.
  • Gartland, K.M.A., Crow, R.M., Fenning, T.M., Gartland, J.S. 2003. Genetically modified trees: production, properties, and potential, Journal of Arboriculture 29(5).
  • OECD's Consensus Documents for the Work on Harmonization of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology. (including work on Betula pendula, Populus L., Pinus Strobus L., Picea Sitchensis, Picea glauca, Picea abies)
  • Su, X.H., Zhang, B.Y., Huang, Q.J., Huang, L.J. & Zhang, X.H. 2003. Advances in tree genetic engineering in China.
  • European Environment Agency. 2002.Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): The significance of gene flow through pollen transferIntensively managed hybrid eucalyptus plantation, China. Photo: Jim CarleEnvironmental Issue Report No. 28. EEA, Copenhagen.

  • Burdon, R.D. 2001. Genetic aspects of risk - species diversification, genetic management and genetic engineering. New Zealand J. of For., February, Vol. 45 (1): 20-25.

  • Carlson, M. 2001. ERMA hearing for applications to field trial genetically-modified Pinus radiata. New Zealand J. of For., Vol. 46 (1): 8-9.

  • Strauss, H.S., DiFazio, S.P. & Meilan, R. 2001. Genetically modified poplars in context. The For. Chron., Vol. 77 (2): 271-279.

  • Burke, W. S. 2000. New trees on the horizon: anticipating forest biotechnology. The For. Chron., Vol. 77 (1): 19-22.

  • McLean, M.A. & Charest, P.J. 2000. The regulation of transgenic trees in North America. Silv. Gen., Vol. 49 (6): 233-239.

  • Strauss, S.H., Meilan, R & DiFazio, S.P. 2000.Challenges to commercial uses of transgenic trees in forest plantations. The case of poplars.In proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetic Modified Organisms. Saskatoon, Canada.
  • DiFazio, S.P., Leonardi, S., Cheng, S. & Strauss, S.H. 1999.Assessing potential risks of transgene escape from fiber plantations.In P.W. Lutman (ed.) Gene flow and agriculture: relevance for transgenic crops. Symposium Proceedings No. 72. British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, United Kingdom.
  • International Union of Forestry Research Organisations (IUFRO). 1999. Position Statement on Benefits and Risks of Transgenic Plantations.
  • WWF. 1999.An overview of GM technology in the forest sector.A scoping study for WWF-UK and WWF International by Rachel Asante Owusu.
  • Mullin, T.J. & Bertrand, S. 1998. Environmental release of transgenic trees in Canada - potential benefits and assessment of biosafety. The For. Chron., Vol. 74(2): 203-219.
  • last updated:  Friday, January 7, 2011