Given the multiple use potential of mangrove ecosystems, an integrated approach to mangrove management is essential and should cover the full range of products and services which can be obtained from these areas.

The uses and values of the products obtainable from mangroves are many and important. The importance of the resource stems from the many products taken directly from the mangroves, including the non-wood products, as well as amenities provided from within and beyond its boundaries.Wood productsrange from timber, poles and posts to firewood, charcoal and tannin.Non-wood productsinclude thatch, honey, wildlife, fish, fodder and medicine. In addition, mangrove lands are often converted to salt ponds or to agriculture or aquaculture purposes.


  • Firewood
  • Charcoal
  • Timber, scaffolds
  • Heavy construction
  • Railway sleepers
  • Mining props
  • Boat building
  • Dock pilings
  • Beams and poles
  • Flooring, panelling
  • Thatch or matting
  • Fence posts, chipboards
  • Fishing stakes
  • Fishing boats
  • Wood for smoking fish
  • Tannin for net/lines
  • Fish attracting shelter
Textile, leather
  • Synthetic fibres (rayon)
  • Dye for cloth
  • Tannin for leather preservation
Paper products
  • Paper - various
Food, drugs and beverages
  • Sugar
  • Alcohol
  • Cooking oil
  • Vinegar
  • Tea substitute
  • Fermented drinks
  • Dessert topping
  • Condiments (bark)
  • Sweetmeats (propagules)
  • Vegetables (fruit/leaves)
  • Fodder
Household items
  • Glue
  • Hairdressing oil
  • Tool handles
  • Rice mortar
  • Toys
  • Match sticks
  • Incense
Other forest products
  • Packing boxes
  • Wood for smoking sheet rubber
  • Medecines
Other natural products
  • Fish/Crustaceans
  • Honey
  • Wax
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Reptiles/other fauna


  1. Coastal protection against wave and wind erosion
  2. Moderating the effects of coastal storms and cyclones
  3. Shelter and habitat for diverse wildlife, particularly avifauna
  4. Nutrient sink-effect and reduction in excessive amounts of pollutants
  5. Entrapment of upland runoff sediments thus protecting nearshore reefs and reducing water turbidity

Mangroves also provide opportunities for education, scientific research, recreation and ecotourism.

Extracted from
FAO. 1994. Mangrove forest management guidelines. FAO Forestry Paper No. 117. Rome.

last updated:  Monday, May 16, 2005