粮农组织林业文件

粮农组织林业文件系列是粮农组织在林业方面的主要文件系列。大多数文件以多种文字版本的形式发布。

粮农组织 林业 论文 165: 林权改革 — 问题、原则和过程 有保障的权属是可持续森林管理的重要前提条件。更加多样化的权属体系可为改善森林管理、当地生计奠定基础,在森林管理能力较弱的国家尤其如此。过去10年间,很多国家开始改革森林和林地的权属安排,将获取和管理森林资源的权力在不同程度上从中央下放到家庭、私营公司和社区等主体。本书为政策制定者以及森林权属改革的参与者提供了切实可行的指导。书中引用了大量资料,包括粮农组织在非洲、东南亚、拉丁美洲和中亚开展的森林权属评估,得出一些经验教训,并阐明原因。本书列出了10条权属改革指导原则,提出因地制宜通过适应性的方式实现森林权属多样化。本书还强调,成功的权属改革与相关规范框架和治理安排改革相关联,因此必须将其放在更广阔的国家发展议程中来看待。 [更多]
粮农组织 林业 论文 164: 林业植物检疫标准 实施指南 由联合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织)公布的一份最新指南旨在帮助各国防止森林有害生物向新的地区蔓延。每年至少有3500万公顷森林因有害生物的爆发而遭到破坏。指南就如何有效实施有害生物管理战略和确保林产品的安全跨界移动提出了建议。 [更多]
粮农组织 林业文集 163: 2010年森林资源评估 主报告 森林砍伐、森林退化以及原始林面积缩减在全球的快速发展趋势给世界森林生物多样性造成威胁。然而,在许多国家建立的保护区中,森林生物多样性的保护呈现出持续积极的趋势。这是粮农组织《2010年全球森林资源评估》(FRA 2010)最终报告公布的主要调查结果,而此次评估是有史以来对世界森林状况作出的最为全面的评估。FRA 2010最终报告于今天在两年一次的林业委员会例会和世界森林周在罗马开幕之际正式发布。根据该报告,2000年至2010年期间,全球每年被转作其他用途,包括农业,或由于自然原因丧失的森林面积大约为1300万公顷,这一数字低于上世纪90年代期间的每年约1600万公顷。在森林总面积中有三分之一以上被列为原始森林,即没有明显人为干扰迹象的森林。原始森林,特别是热带湿润森林,包含了世界上一些物种最丰富和多样的生态系统。原始森林占世界森林面积的36%(14亿公顷),但在过去十年里其面积减少了愈4000万公顷,即每年减少0.4%。 [更多]
粮农组织 林业 论文 161: 有效的森林政策制定指南 许多国家都制定或重新修订森林政策以适应不断变化的环境,提高森林对社会的价值。这些国家制定森林政策的经验表明,过去20年里不论是森林政策的内容还是制定或修订森林政策的方法都发生了很大的变化。本指南的目的是为那些计划启动或正在进行森林政策制定程序的国家提供支持。基于对实际经验的回顾,书中概括了国家森林政策的原理和目的,以及森林政策制定程序的各个环节。本书将有助于政府管理机构的高级官员和其他利益相关方,包括民间社团组织和私有部门,制定或修订国家森林政策。粮农组织希望通过本书以及其他相关的能力建设支持来帮助一些国家制定森林政策,该政策要以新出现的趋势和利益相关方之间达成广泛共识为基础,并且能够证实和增强森林的社会价值以及其对可持续发展的贡献。 [更多]
Most climate change strategies emphasize reducing greenhouse gas emissions by reducing energy use and switching to energy sources that are less carbon intensive than fossil fuels. This publication explores the scope, potential and implications for using woodfuels to replace fossil fuels and thereby contribute to climate change mitigation. The publication will be of interest to specialists and policy-makers in forestry, climate change and renewable energy, as well as to forest managers, students and general audiences interested in learning more about the role of forests in energy production and the resulting mitigation potential. [更多]
In many developing countries, woodfuels are still commonly used for household cooking and heating and are also important for local processing industries. In many developed countries, wood-processing industries often use their wood by-products for energy production. In some countries, notably the Nordic countries, forest residues are increasingly used for industrial-scale electricity generation and heating. Several developing countries have enormous potential to produce energy from forests and trees outside forests, for both domestic use and export. However this potential is not often properly reflected in national energy-development strategies. This publication sets out principles, criteria and indicators to guide the sustainable use of woodfuel resources and the sustainable production of charcoal. It is designed to help policy- and decision-makers in forestry, energy and environment agencies, non-governmental and other civil-society organizations and the private sector ensure that the woodfuel sector reaches its full potential as an agent of sustainable development. [更多]
This publication examines the complex connections between the global forest products industry and the global carbon cycle, with the objective of characterizing the carbon footprint of the sector. The analysis finds that the industry’s main sources of emissions are manufacturing and disposal of used products in landfills. Globally, the impact of the industry on carbon in forests cannot be described quantitatively because of the lack of data in many parts of the world and the complexity of the industry’s raw material supply chain. Data from some countries, however, suggest that sustainable forest management practices can be effective in keeping forest carbon stocks stable over time. Indirect greenhouse gas benefits resulting from the activities or products of the forest products industry, while difficult to measure, can be large and could be increased. [更多]
One of the main challenges of desertification is encroachment of moving sands, which has devastating environmental and socio-economic impacts. Mauritania, as one of the most severely affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has accumulated a great deal of experience in combating sand encroachment over the past several decades. This publication synthesizes the lessons learned, particularly in the implementation of a recently concluded project for rehabilitation and extension of the Nouakchott Green Belt, carried out by FAO and the Government of Mauritania with support from the Walloon Region of Belgium. [更多]
In Africa, conflicts between humans and wildlife have become more frequent and severe over recent decades.This publication was compiled to facilitate the coexistence of humans and wildlife and assist affected communities in applying best management practices. With a focus on large herbivores and carnivores such as elephants, lions, baboons and crocodiles, the book presents the issues, describes different methods of conflict management and outlines a three-step framework for decision-making. [更多]
Effective pest management requires reliable information about the biology, ecology and distribution of the pests, their impacts on forest ecosystems and possible methods of control; it also often requires international cooperation. This publication represents a rare effort to address forest pests and diseases comprehensively at the global level [更多]

最后更新  2019年9月18日 星期三