Risks of species introductions in tropical forestry

Hughes, C.E. 1994
(Oxford Forestry Institute, University of Oxford,
South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK)
Commonwealth-Forestry-Review. 1994, 73: 4,
243-252, 272-273; 77 ref.

Tropical tree seed has been moved around the globe on an unprecedented scale over the last three decades. Benefits and risks associated with introductions of tropical trees are reviewed. The current approach to species introductions in forestry is summarized and the marked lack of procedures covering movement of tropical tree germplasm discussed in relation to policies covering biocontrol agents and transgenic plants. General principles and specific guidelines that might be used to formulate a more rational approach to forestry introductions are presented and problems involved in assessment of risks associated with introductions pointed out. A more cautious approach to species introductions is advocated and importance of species choice and advantages and limitations of native and exotic species and seedless varieties are discussed.

Forest trees as invasive aliens

Richardson, D.M. 1998
Conservation Biology, pp 18-26 Volume 12, No.1.

A comprehensive review paper that provides the background to introduced species both tropical and temperate, the species currently used for plantations, their extent, those that are considered weedy, and makes suggestions as to solutions.

Species monographs and leaflets

There are many publications, either monographs or leaflets, that are concerned with one particular species. These may cover the whole range of information about their biology, ecology, and silviculture, or maybe limited to details about propagation and seed. The individual species are too numerous to mention here. Check the following organisations for details further information:

  • species monographs:Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI)
  • leaflets:Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Centre (CATIE)
  • leaflets:World Agroforestry Centre
  • leaflets:Danida Forest Seed Centre (DFSC)
  • USDA-FS woody plant seed manualSelected references - General - USDA-FS woody plant seed manual

    CABI Global Forest Compendium

    Follow the link

    International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transfer

    FAO, 1994.
    20 p. ISBN 92-5-103571-7.

    Available directly from FAO, or on line at

    This voluntary code, adopted in 1993, provides broad guidelines concerning collection and transfer of plant germplasm, and proposes procedures for requesting and/or issuing licences for collection missions; guidelines for collectors; and responsibilities and obligations for sponsors of missions, gene bank curators, and users of genetic material. It also calls for participation of farmers and local institutions in collecting missions and proposes sharing of benefits with host country and farmers. As such, the code provides helpful support in drawing up Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) where required by the ITPGR.

  • last updated:  Wednesday, June 27, 2007