Mangrove restoration and management references

Mangrove restoration and management publications

Selected publications and homepages related to mangrove restoration and management.

Aksornkoae, S. 1993. Ecology and Management of Mangroves. The IUCN Wetlands Programme.

This book provides a comprehensive review of mangrove ecology, drawing on rich experience and examples from Thailand as well as other countries where mangroves are found. It describes the relationship between mangroves and their environments, in terms of their adaptation to salinity, winds and waves, root specializations and various interactions and interrelationships within the ecosystem which serve to sustain these coastal formations.


Chong, J. 2005. Protective values of mangroves and coral ecosystems: A review of methods and evidence .

This paper reviews evidence and methodologies for assessing the shoreline protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems. These studies tend to be based on hypothetical situations, comparing current situations to that if the protective values were destroyed. In tsunami-affected coastal areas, however, there is an opportunity to assess the protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems, supported by field-based evidence, to promote conservation of these ecosystems for the livelihoods of coastal communities.


Clarke, A. and Johns, L. 2002. Mangrove nurseries: Construction, propagation and planting. Queensland Fisheries Services .

These guidelines provide a technical information base to assist in the design, construction and establishment of a mangrove nursery, propagation and planting techniques for selected mangrove species. These guidelines have been prepared in response to a demand from natural resource managers, local governments, developers, community groups and conservation agencies for information on fisheries requiremnets for the running of a mangrove nursery and nurseries.


The information used in these guidelines is based on the outcomes of Natural Heritage Trust funded research projects undertaken by Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries marine habitat staff at the Northern Fisheries Centre, Cairns.


Erftemeijer, L.A. and Lewis, R.R. 1999.Planting Mangroves on intertidal mudflats: Habitat restoration or habitat conversion? 

This paper attempts to raise the awareness of the large-scale planting of mangroves on intertidal mudflats by evaluating the limited success rates of such efforts, and emphasize the ecological importance and economic attributes of intertidal mudflats. A full environmental assessment should be made in order to select the proper site for mangrove restoration. The important ecological and socio-economic attributes of intertidal mudflats indicate that mangrove afforestation in these areas does not constitute a wise or plausible use of resources.


FAO 1982. Management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. FAO environment paper No.3.

This study concerns itself with mangrove resources, their utilization and management in the Asia and Pacific region. The emphasis is on the environmental relationship between forestry, fisheries and agriculture. Land use options for mangrove areas are also discussed. In a case-study in Thailand, the utilization of mangrove resources by local communities has been quantified and socio-economic aspects include estimates of the gross annual income derived from various forms of land use.


FAO 1985. Mangrove management in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. FAO environment paper No.4.

This study on mangrove management in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia addresses the status and potential of integrated management of the mangrove ecosystems in a region where this resource has been managed and utilized for many years, and where information and experience therefore exists, that may provide a more detailed insight in the problems and possibilities related to sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems.


FAO 1994. Mangrove forest management guidelines. FAO Forestry Paper No. 117. Rome.

A comprehensive publication on management of mangrove ecosystems. The guidelines include a chapter on mangrove ecology in order to ensure adequate understanding of the dynamics of these ecosystems, as a basis for their conservation and sustainable use. Furthermore the guidelines include chapters on inventory and assessment of mangrove resources, and on traditional and potential uses of products provided by them.


Field, C. 1996. Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. ISME & ITTO.

This book is about the rationales and techniques for restoring disturbed mangrove ecosystems. It brings together thirteen contributions, covering thirteen different countries from authors with direct experience of restoring a variety of impaired mangrove sites. The situations explored range through disturbance due to airport construction, oil spillage, and conversion to fish ponds, over-cutting, pollution, urban development and natural disasters. There is also consideration of reforesting a commercial mangrove plantation. Finally, there is a brief look at the philosophy and problems underlying the process of restoring a natural ecosystem.


Hubert, M .A. Mangrove Silviculture.

The following is a modified extract from the FAO Forestry and Forest Products Study, Tropical Silviculture. It gives the highlights of the silviculture of mangrove forests, and deals with the occurrence; physical factors; silvical factors such as composition, succession seed production, establishment, and stand development; silvicultural practice; and some suggestions as to future research.


Hussain, M.Z. Silviculture of mangrove.

In many areas of the world, mangrove forests have been exploited with little or no attempt to manage the resource in a sustainable manner. Moreover mangroves are managed under selection and clear-felling silvicultural systems in a limited number of countries in Asia. An increasing number of countries, mostly in Asia, have in recent years seriously taken up mangrove plantation establishment and the rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations. This article examines some of these situations and their potential applicability on a wider basis.


ISME 1993. Mangrove Nurseries in Bangladesh. Mangrove Ecosystems Occasional Papers number 1.

Knowledge gained during the raising of experimental plantations and information gathered from afforestation activities form the basis of this paper. As S. apetala and A. officinalis are the principle planting species, more information on nursery technique on these species dealt with in this paper. Though the has been prepared in the light of experience in Bangladesh conditions, it is believed that the paper may be useful in other countries to a certain extent.


Kitamura et.al. 1997. Handbook of Mangroves in Indonesia ¿ Bali & Lombok. Japan International Cooporation Agency (JICA) & The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystem (ISME). .

International Society for mangrove Ecosystems publications list .

This handbook is a practical guide that does not require any special knowledge for plant classification, and is based on experience of many years of field work with many people at different levels of botanical knowledge. This booklet includes a lot of descriptions, pictures and local name list to help distinguish species more easily. It also contains a section on planting techniques for main mangrove species.


Kumar, K. 2000. Conservation and management of mangroves in India, with special reference to the State of Goa and the Middle Andaman Islands .

Mangroves are widespread in India, but in many places they are highly degraded. According to the Government of India (1987), India lost 40 percent of its mangrove area in the last century. The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) recorded a decline of 7 000 ha of mangroves in India within the six-year period from 1975 to 1981. In Andaman and Nicobar Islands about 22 400 ha of mangroves were lost between 1987 and 1997.


Growing awareness of the protective, productive and social functions of tropical mangrove ecosystems has highlighted the need to conserve and manage them sustainably. This article discusses the various measures taken by the Government of India for the conservation and management of mangroves, the problems that persist in spite of these measures and some solutions to overcome them.


The article is partly based on the field experiences of the author since 1992 in the State of Goa and the Middle Andaman Islands.


Lewis, R.R. 2000.Restoration of mangrove habitat. </p> 

According to the author, it is possible to restore some mangroves, salt flats, or other ecosystems even though parameters such as soil type and condition may have been altered and the flora and fauna may have changed. However, if the goal of restoration is to return an area to a pristine condition, then the possibilities of failure increase.


Lewis, R.R. 2000.Mangrove restoration - costs and benefits of successful ecological restoration. </p> 

The cost of a successful restoration of mangrove vegetation and ecological functions have been reported to range from USD$225/ha to USD$216,000/ha. Unpublished data indicate that the even higher costs, as much as USD$500,000/ha has been spent on individual projects. These are obviously cost prohibitive amounts for most countries seeking to restore damaged mangroves.


Lewis, R. 2004. Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests .

This article document the importance of assessing the existing hydrology of natural extant mangrove ecosystems, and applying this knowledge to first protect existing mangroves, and second to achieve successful and cost-effective ecological restoration, if needed. Previous research has documented the general principle that mangrove forests worldwide exist largely in a raised and sloped platform above mean sea level, and inundated at approximately 30%, or less of the time by tidal waters. More frequent flooding causes stress and death of these tree species. Prevention of such damage requires application of the same understanding of mangrove hydrology.


Lewis, R.R. Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. </p> 

This paper addresses the importance of assessing the existing hydrology of natural mangrove ecosystems, and of applying this knowledge to protect existing mangrove forests and where needed to achieve successful and cost-effective ecological restoration.


Lustica, A. 1991: Guide in Mangrove reforestation. Yuhum La Defensa Press Inc.

Useful practical booklet on mangrove restoration. Include sections on identification of species, selection of planting sites, seed collection and direct planting techniques.


PCARRD 1988. Reforesting denuded mangroves with Bakawan. PCARRD Farm Primer No.1.

Practical booklet, which contains useful illustrations and shorts paragraphs with descriptions of the different steps in the reforestation of mangrove ecosystems.


PCARRD 1991 The Philippines recommends for Mangrove Production and Harvesting. Philippines Recommends Series No.74.

This publication has been prepared to promote the establishment and rehabilitation of mangrove plantations. It shares practical experience on mangrove plantation and management to policy makers, researchers, forest managers, and other sectors actively involved in mangrove plantation establishment and rehabilitation.


Vanucci, M. 2004 Mangrove Management & Conservation ¿ Present & Future. United Nations University Press.

The focus of this book is on the coastal ecosystems of the tropical and subtropical regions. The book is divided into three main sections, each related to the management of mangroves and tropical forests. One section focus on the ecological part of the management, presenting aspects on mangrove restoration and conservation. Another part puts attention to the need for applying an integrated approach in the management of mangroves and other tropical forests. Furthermore the book presents a number of case studies on the sustainable management of mangroves.


Villacorta, L. and van Wetten, J.C.J. 1993. Wise use and restoration of mangrove and marine resources in the Central Visayas Region of the Philippines.

Mangrove species bear viviparous seeds (propagules), which are fairly easy to collect, transport and plant; the 70-95 percent of planted propagules survive. Planting seeds on an area of 1m2 (10000 seeds/ha) requires a labour of 5 man days/ha. The maintenance of the plantation, such as removing barnacles from infested stems, is sometimes necessary. Tidal inlets, sandy fringes and muddy tidal flats are best for Avicennia officinalis and Sonneratia spp, while Rhizophora apiculata or R. mucronata can be planted in the sandy belts adjacent to tidal inlets. Further inland, waterlogged areas and riverbanks with clayey soils are best for Nypa fructicans, Ceriops spp and Brugenia spp . Thinning can start some 10 years after planting.


Within two to three years, fishermen have reported increasing fish and shrimp catches, and increasing yields of shellfish and mussels in and around the young plantations. Coastal erosion decreases with the establishment and by the end of the third year large root systems cover the soil and form a firm mat, breaking the impact of waves and water currents.


WIOMSA/IUCN (2004) Mangrove restoration .

Where areas of mangrove forest have been damaged there may be opportunity for active restoration in which the management of marine protected areas can take a leading role. Mangrove restoration is generally inexpensive, has high degree of success, and is being undertaken in many parts of the western part of the Indian Ocean. It is however labour intensive and requires a certain level of skill, at least for some species. This sheet provides general guidelines and sources of information on the topic.


Mangrove restoration and management web sites

www.mangroverestoration.com. Restoration of mangroves.


www.glomis.com . Global Mangrove database & Information System.


www.mangrove.or.jp. ISME - International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems.


www.ramsar.org . ISME - International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems.


www.earthisland.org . Mangrove action project.


www.mangrove.org . Mangrove Replenishment Initiative.


www.wetlands.org. Wetlands International.


www.wetlands.org. Wetlands International.


www.aims.gov.au/ibm. Australian Institute of Marina Science: Coral reefs and Mangroves - modelling and management.