Extractive industries

Extractive industries refer to any industrial- scale extraction of raw materials from the earth. Examples of extractive processes include logging, oil and gas extraction, mining, dredging, and quarrying. Extractives industries may have direct and indirect impacts on bushmeat species and bushmeat use.

What are the impacts of logging on wildlife and bushmeat use? 

In the tropics, selective logging is the most common form of timber extraction. Selective logging means that logging targets only certain commercially valuable tree species above a minimum size and leaving other species un-harvested. At least 20% of all tropical forests were logged from 2000 to 2005. Biologists have often emphasized the deleterious impacts of selective logging for disturbance-sensitive wildlife.

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What are the impacts of mining on bushmeat use?

Artisanal mining (especially of gold and diamonds) while an important source of income for local populations is largely unregulated. Direct impacts of artisanal mining are mostly localized; indirect impacts such as sedimentation, pollution, and poaching can present a serious and larger threat.

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What measures can be taken to mitigate the impacts of extractive industries on wildlife and ensure the sustainable use of bushmeat?

Extractive industries could integrate biodiversity conservation and human livelihoods considerations by moving toward sustainable practices that explicitly consider the direct and indirect effects of their activities on wildlife. The development of best practices and certification schemes could help guide extractive industries into more wildlife friendly practices.

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Further reading 

Clark, C.J., Poulsen, J.R., Malonga, R., Elkan, P.W. 2009. Logging Concessions Can Extend the Conservation Estate for Central African Tropical Forests. Conservation Biology 23, 1281-1293.

Brodie, J. F., Giordano, A. J., Zipkin, E. F., Bernard, H., Mohd-Azlan, J., and Ambu, L. 2015. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology, 29: 110–121. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12389.

Edwards, D.P., Laurance, W.F. 2013. Biodiversity Despite Selective Logging. Science Letters 339(6120): 646-647.

Poulsen, J., Clark, C., Mavah, G., Elkan, P. 2009. Bushmeat Supply and Consumption in a Tropical Logging Concession in Northern Congo. Conservation Biology 23, 1597-1608.

Nasi, R., Billand, A., vanVliet, N. 2012. Managing for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin. Forest Ecology and Management 268, 103-111.

Suarez, E., Morales, M., Cueva, R., Utreras Bucheli, V., Zapata-Rios, G., Toral, E., Torres, J., Prado, W., Vargas Olalla, J. 2009. Oil industry, wild meat trade and roads: indirect effects of oil extraction activities in a protected area in north-eastern Ecuador. Animal Conservation 12, 364-373.

Youssoufa, M.B., Sonwa, D.J., Tiani, A.M. 2014. Adapting the Congo Basin forests management to climate change: Linkages among biodiversity, forest loss, and human well-being. Forest Policy and Economics 50:1-10.


last updated:  Wednesday, March 18, 2015