3) Do you have any examples of such enabling factors and initiatives or the lack of it? Which partners need to be involved in institutional frameworks, policies and processes for biodiversity mainstreaming to strengthen them?
4) What needs to be done to increase awareness of farmers, livestock keepers, fisher folks and foresters, their organizations and the industry of the relevance of biodiversity and ecosystem services for the food and agriculture production in their sector? How can the technical and institutional capacity needed to promote sustainable agriculture and reduce the impact on biodiversity be developed?
Good governance and enabling framework—Lessons from the Pacific SIDS
Mainstreaming biodiversity requires a coordinated effort of high-level engagement with the national government, traditional leaders and international organizations. In the SIDS country of Palau, traditional leaders sit as special advisory council to Office of the President. Recognizing the needs and trends of the people and the effects on the environment and national resources the Council of Chiefs work closely with the President to ensure laws and regulations are aligned with traditional wisdom and grassroots needs. The Micronesia Challenge ,Palau National Shark Sanctuary, Protected Areas Network and Palau National Marine Sanctuary are based on the traditional conservation practice called bul whereby village chiefs in observance of depleting fish stocks enforce a temporary ban on specific species ensuring the natural processes of spawning and feeding enable the replenishment of fish stocks and securing the long-term livelihoods of fisherfolk and the tourism industry. The Green Fee is an environmental use fee paid by visitors to fund enforcement at the local level. In many SIDS countries tourism is the breadbasket of the economy and exploitation of natural resources leads to the permanent loss of biodiversity. In mainstreaming best practices toward conservation of biodiversity Palau introduced an innovative law in December 2017 requiring tourists to pledge not to harm the environment. Immigration and education policies were altered to promote and enforce the discouragement of irresponsible tourism for the benefit of the future generation of Palau (The Palau Pledge).