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Response to Question 1;
The examples of actions that are taken to reduce poverty: First and foremost thanks for these good questions which help me to express activities done very relevant to my career, there are a number of activities done to reduce poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional challenges in response to climate change:
A, Reduce poverty:
There are many activities being done to reduce poverty like enabling or financial facilities to the farmers in cooperatives to support their micro-projects of agricultural activities, those activities include: growing of tomatoes, and other horticultural crops which do not require higher agronomic techniques and farmers take the products to the market. We can talk of activities done to facilitate traditional water harvesting like rain water harvesting that helps farmers to irrigate their horticultural crops, micro-loans, financing the trainings of farmer informal agronomists to help other farmers. Farmers education: this is teaching farmers the importance of using modern farming systems like use of fertilizers, spraying, proper planting methods, growing periods all mentioned activities are being done to reduce poverty in people vulnerable to poverty to improve their livelihoods.
B, Food insecurity and climate change:
The results of climate change are increase in drought of many areas and very low rainfall in many areas of the world, here as plant breeders and all environmental specialists; the response to this problem is the introduction of new crops and plant species which can resist climate drought problems, this activities of introducing new crops are done in many areas of research institutions, new crops like hybrid maize, beans, sorghum, millet, banana, wheat, rice, etc are being introduced to farmers, these drought resistant crops helps to reduce food insecurity.
The activities done by Nigerian farmers of digging small hills in their field to hold rain water this helps to prolong the water in the soil and reduce soil erosion.
C, nutrition and climate change:
There are a number of activities being done to improve nutrition; like projects that support processing to increase a number of products from the same crop/plant, processing include package/storage facilities of the product to resist dryness for a long period of time, reducing deterioration and seed dormancy to crops, proper seed storage and overall increased value to the crop for being useful for a long period of time after harvest while actually have not lost its nutritional content
Response to question 2:
The lesson from adaptive capacity build to the poor involves a number of recommendations from the experience learnt; first, when you want to develop a community base on their culture and customs, if you bring something they don’t understand it will collapse when you depart, or they will just do it to make you happy. The crops liked by a community or which bring economy to the poor people. You give facilitation to the people basing on the commodity which can do well in ecological condition of the region. The farmers usually grow crops which do well in their region and the development should come to support the very crops preferred by the farmers and can do well in that agro-ecological conditions. There should be a forecast to resist climate events like floods, which destroy crops and human building; by digging water harvesting dams, planting trees around bare areas and the fields.
Response to question 3;
- The challenges are introducing projects that are not relevant to the community customs or religion,
- Not allowing the target group in the suggestion of the micro projects which supports them,
- introducing of crops which do not do well in the ecological condition of the Areas,
- Introducing of commodities which are not relevant to the need of the society and are not preferred by the majority.
- Poor planning and policy makers who are the final decision makers
- The individuals who do not like the good progress of the target areas and start dirty education of resisting projects
Response to question 4;
What should the world learn from these experiences?
- The would should first reason the climatic behavior and changes and the way out.
- The world should promote plant breeding sciences because it is the only way to do crop gene editing which can change crop to match climate changes.
- When addressing poverty include community members to participate and respect responses given by farmers in survey questionnaires.
- Avoid introducing a commodity (a crop) without clear information of climate or ecological condition of the region.
- The projects should facilitate farmers’ needs basing on the economic crop.
- The world should promote horticultural crops because most of crops does not require higher agronomic techniques to be grown and have a great healthy importance
- These should be projects supporting irrigation and water storage facilities not depending on rain water
To contribute to the conference, we invite you to share your experience and views by replying to the following questions:
1. Experience as a Youth in the Agriculture Sector
Agriculture sector occupies a major percentage in the private sector in my country and plays a major role in GDP. There is attendance of assuming agriculture to be particularly for men in many African countries, this misunderstanding can be solved by providing motivation to younger people with good projects and allow them access to finance. The government of Rwanda is doing the best to improve Agriculture by not depending on natural rain by improvements in irrigation systems and rain water harvesting. The country has done her best to improve the wellbeing of her people by giving improved seeds to farmers.
2. Employing youth in Agriculture
Global population is expected to increase to 9 billion by 2050, with youth (aged 15–24) accounting for about 14 percent of this total. While the world’s youth is expected to grow, employment and innovative opportunities for youth – particularly those living in developing countries’ economically stagnant rural areas – remain limited, poorly remunerated and of poor quality. The employment of youth in Agriculture sector is a major act that can bring agriculture to good standard of feeding her people and to develop the continent at large, this is so due to the fact that, Youth are willing to work and they have ability to show performance, second; youth people occupy a larger percentage in the population system.
3. AGRICULTURE IMPROVEMENT
in my country ministry of Agriculture and have done best to improve Agriculture technology and wellbeing of her people than ever before, this is evidenced by seeing the seed storage building in different parts of the country. There are also many agriculture projects that are supporting Agriculture development in Rwanda, though much is still needed.
A. Major Achievements and Success Stories
During my BSc-Research in Agriculture I developed a research project which were solving a problem of expensive chemical nutrient additives to farmers and were liked by Research institutions (RAB) which were finally published in CABI-Project. In my MSc-Research project, I developed maize candidate cultivars in the regions which were in needy, while in Uganda. I sometimes was being consulted by World Bank group to give data on Agriculture situation while included in online survey.
B. What the Rwanda Youth Conference Should Address
The conference should address young beneficiaries of the Project for the Promotion of Entrepreneurship to the younger people especially women and ladies in which they are in situation of difficulty accessing finance, this can be achieved by government agreement with the banks and decentralized financial institutions to support their micro-enterprises of younger people. In order to overcome the challenges, providing solutions through its Support Service to Finance and Rwanda have done her level best to educate youth and they occupy a big area in the public service, private sector and NGOs, and the country still doing her level best to improve youth and to include them in Agriculture sector. Much improvement is needed to make better the livelihoods of African youth and Rwanda.
C. Youth Employment and Entrepreneurship
There should be improvement in admitting youth in public service and to fund their projects, this can be a good step in development once is done, their projects should also be financed. Youth to successfully participate in the agricultural sector, access to both information and education are fundamental and prerequisite; this can help to be able to acquire knowledge of agricultural production and processing techniques. Young people need access to finance or facilitation for involvements in projects that can develop their livelihoods. This applies to developed and developing countries alike. However, the situation is particularly dire in many developing countries, where access to appropriate education and training often remains insufficient mostly in rural areas.
D. Digital Innovation to Overcome Agriculture Value-Chain Constraints
There are many modern projects which can help gene editing to overcome crop responding to climate, for example crops affected by drought can be changed by introducing resistant genes, and this can be done through gene editing through breeding systems. The introduction of genomic selection in research breeding programs, Bio-informatics and bio-statistical breeding programs, digital pivot irrigation systems on a large scale, Introduction of breeding management systems (BMS) in breeding programs, Marker assisted selection in the breeding programs. I can ask experts how the modern agriculture breeding systems can be introduced to help crops respond to climate change as well as the environment improvement in climate smart systems.
E. Future of Work in Rural Economy - of the conference?
1. What is the future work to improve agriculture systems in rural sector?
2. How can horticulture be improved to overcome malnutrition in rural Areas?
3. How can opportunity be created to the African youth to motivate youth in Agriculture sector?
4. Youth projects are many and needs to be established?
5. What is the vision of the country for the youth who have no mortgage for loan and hence have mental capacity to implement the projects?
Is an International Code of Conduct for the Use and Management of Fertilizers beneficial and useful? To whom, and why?
The ICoCoforManagement of fertilizer is very fabulous and helpful Mostly to rural in habitants this is because rural in habitants depend on agriculture that other areas. The policy is very beneficial to Africa continent because it is the continent with higher percentage of Agriculture defendants and unfortunately with low level of Agriculture practices.
Does this Fertilizer Code of Conduct address all aspects necessary to ensure the responsible use of fertilizers, optimizing benefits while minimizing risks?
For it is good and have at list look to many aspects of beneficiaries but focus should be
Considered well. Example hiring some workers to vulgarize/sensibilize
Are there any topics or subject matter missing from this Fertilizer Code of Conduct? If so, what are they?
Quantitative and qualitative content topics should be formulated, i.e the quantity of fertilizer to be applied to which crop or what type of soils, the quantity of emulsion concentration (EC) of fertilizers, this is because some fertilizers are very concentrated and very toxic once mal-dozed. This is not promising to the local low trained users, in other words fertilizers should not be highly dozed complicated.
Are there redundancies or unnecessary items or subjects within this Code of Conduct? If so, what are they?
There are no very redundancies detected sofar, it is helping to many extents and so good, for sure the the team have done the best
Do you have any other suggestions or comments not covered in the above questions? If so, please elaborate.
I would have made comments but the zero-document is promising to help much
1. Sustainability and replicability of the practices
I would like to describe practices which can help below
1. Grazing and Livestock management
Grazing management is a practice of looking after domestic animals in good and proper managerial way, this is done to protect natural vegetation. It is self explanatory for every one that good vegetation contribute to rainfall hence, water we are in need of, and vice versa.
2. Soil and Water Management (including cross slope barriers)
Soil management involves local construction of barriers to stop soil and water runoff, these practices does not necessarily involve expensive constructions, (like using cemented canals) no way, it is done by local in habitants by planting terebusacum, elephant grases, and some acacia trees on the lidges/ borders of their field. Sometimes they dug terraces in their fields for those living in sloppy areas, these practices are done using local hoes not necessarily caterpillars, and or tractors. Farmers do them and protect water runoff by themselves, they sometimes request some simple incentives to by local drinks while doing these activities, or they can amelgament their little money and buy drinks for themselves.
3. Water harvesting (and storage practices)
This practice involves construction of Pond water in the sloppy fields and put big sheeting in the pond to hold water and can be used for irrigation. it also involves putting water channelling materials on iron sheet roof houses and direct water in big tanks. These activities does not require a big project with a lot of dollars, it only require good governance, and important international organization guide lines like FAO-UN works, and mobilise policy to rural in habitants. Water harvesting practices is very useful locally and succeeded to help people in many areas. It help in the irrigation of kitchen gardens for vegetables like, tomatoes, onions, carrots, etc. water harvesting is very fabulous in food security development at home level.
4. Forest Management (as a coping strategy to water scarcity)
Forest management involves good practices of planting of reducing deforestation in an area where forest have been or have not been before. Forest is necessary in rainfall synclonization and cannot happen without. Forest management should be strongly be put in consideration in order to keep water availability.
5. Integrated wetlands and fisheries management
Wetlands once bad managed it can result into draught causative agent in the very area of practice, wetlands should not be abused by cultivators of animal grazers, mining, constructions etc., these practices should not be done in wetland areas, because it can result into drought. Fisheries management involves practices of proper use and construction of fish ponds these practices have been constructed locally in many areas and very successful.
6. Weather forecasting and early warning systems
I have included this point as the last in the help because it involves higher metrological technics of weather professionals with little involvement of rural in habitants or little in habitants of local citizens, therefore little help in water management.
SECOND PHASE RESPONSES FOR OTHER 3 QUESTIONS SENT
Dear FAO staff these questions are very good.
I would like to know more about the potential impact of preventing food loss and waste in poverty reduction: do you have any examples?
The loss of food produced after many years of labor, inputs invested in production, money, time, capital (machines), is like building a house and after finishing it, you then collapse it down. It is pity many agriculture organizations do not pay attention on food loss. The unseriousness of food loss by many organisation is recognized when looking the following.
A. The time of harvesting; many farmers even research organisations harvest their crops when crops are over dried and have sheeled in the field grounds, this mostly happens on pulse crops,over grown fruit plants like bananas ripe in the field and eaten by the animals, pests, and weviels, overdried maize in the field and stem lodged to the field grownd and eated by termites,rats, birds, and other animals, all of these reduce crop yield, hence low overall yield,
leading to few package crop export, import, or intra-crop exchange also leading to few food crop reaching to the final consumer, this leads to high price, then poor people dont have access
to good food, this brings malnutrition, resulting to diseases, you pay your salary for food and disease hospitality, this results to the final tragedy extreme poverty, but the real jouney starts
from the field. It is exactly like the journey of HIV virus. Examples are many it can take the wholeday is i post papers circulating on the media. Preventing food loss is like working for money and you dont wast your money, rather you keep some in the bank what results after saving??
B. Poor trasport facilities, no roads, no communication, poor package facilities all those results to loss of food, waste hence poverty.
C. Storage facilities is a problem because it causes not only food loss but also afects health, like there is a problem of aflatoxin contamination in grain crops, and oilcrops, this causes many liver hepatitis problems and many death, stomach diseases in imfants and many others. The storage losses can cause 100% crop losses and it is obvious.
- Overall, while eradicating extreme poverty will require multisectoral approaches, how could agriculture be better integrated in poverty reduction strategies? Often these strategies have a weak rural focus, while most of the poor live in rural areas. How can the role of agriculture be more focused on poverty reduction and reach the poorest? Any suggestions?
This question has many questions, i would like therefore to answer in paragraphs, one paragraph represents one question.
The agriculture will obviously be intergrated in poverty eradication due to the fact that, without food without life, no food no life, the saving of currency ernings depend on the market price.
there should be alliance for crop or food productivity to make food available, the level of availability will triger the advancement of other sectoral areas like finance sectors, many countries give alot of money to import food, which money could otherwise be used in other discplines.
Yes, oftenly, stratages are not focusing rural areas, example the policies of many countries dont put good energy on agricultural in rural areas, the evidance is, how many rural areas have sound irrigation systems, 98% of farmers depend on natural rain, and they have little idea on meteological rain irregularities which always causes famine, and this is the main root causative agent of famine. If you want to erradicate poverty promote food production facilities in rural areas, like irrigation systems, nutritional crops which will boost immune systems, like fruits, vegetables etc
The projects that promotes farmers working in cooperatives, once in cooperatives it is easy to educate them and every plan will reach farmers easier. Land consolidation will help to grow planned crop according to crop region adaptability and input facilities availability.
- And the other way around, how can agricultural strategies be more inclusive of the poorest? What mechanisms do we have in the sector to better identify and understand the needs of this population and increase their lack of productive assets?
The rural sector identification can be seen on how or the farmers preferance in that sector, it is mining, afforestation, crop growing, animal realing and which kind of animals that do better there. What type of crops grown there?, what is its productivity depending on standard productivity ranking?. which is the main cause of that yield reduction?, what kind of seeds prefered? how is research organization work with farmers? if no connection, then, there is no research? what kind of productivity in puts needed? are those inputs available? why not available? is it due to the poor goverment policy? Any remedy?
Dear Members, it is excellent to have this opportunity to share about my views on poverty eradication following question by question please see below. NB: THESE QUESTIONS ARE VERY GOOD. First of all, thanks to FAO Staff who have thought about these questions, and if the responses are put in action, i hope many people can come out of poverty globally:
1. Under what conditions can agriculture succeed in lifting people out of extreme poverty? Particularly wwwthose households with limited access to productive resources.
To hit the point on this question; extreme poverty can be defined as the situation where an individual or a group of individuals are lacking basic need to survive. The primary basic needs are; 1. food, 2. clothes, 2. shelter, and 4. medication facilities, 5, education facilities. Agricultural productivity resources are; 1. good soils, 2. water (rainfall, lakes, rivers, seas, underground water), 3. forests (natural and artifical forests), 4. animals (mostly insects), 5, ultra-violate rays or sun penetration.
Extreme poverty can be solved once individuals or a group of people have access to the above mentioned basic needs. Once the problem of lack of food is solved it means 98% of poverty is solved already. Developed countries first established good agricultural policies and solved the problem of food, then poverty were solved already. We give out alot of money to buy food, every body buys food.
We save money according to food pricing on the market. The government policies on agricultural research and extention have to be strong to meet the goals of food security and food production. Reserach in agriculture has to be regarded to meet the problems on natural resources like low rainfall and drought. Agricultural scientists (research and extentionist) have to work hard to come up with new cultivars according to climate changes.
2. What is the role of ensuring more sustainable natural resource management in supporting the eradication of extreme poverty?
Natural resource are the major condition for agricultural production and productivity passways. Forests are necessary for rainfall cycles and synclonization. There should be good management of forests to avoid land desertification. Natural resources like soils should be well managed to avoid soil erosion and soil degradation this is basic need for agricultural production and other wealth creational facilities and mining management. Lakes and rivers well maged for avoiding drainage and wastage of living creatures etc.
3. Can those without the opportunities to pursue production and to access resources such as fish, forests and livestock find pathways out of extreme poverty through these sectors?
Yes, it is possible; who are the target group of people mentioned in the second question? i can say, these are people especially living in desert areas, and urban condition; these people can come out of poverty only if they can get food at a very possible low price. How can crops & food be cheap and not expensive? First, this can only be meet once agricultutal production is facilitated very well and crop productivity is maximised. Secondly, facilitated agricultural comodities or food distribution is eased.
Thirdly, crops and food taxation should be reduced so that it reaches to the consumers when it is not expensive. Transportation and postharvest facilities made possible, easy distribution, food processing and storage facilities, good preservation (made possible).
4. What set of policies are necessary to address issues connecting food security and extreme poverty eradication in rural areas?
A. Agricultural policies: Redearch and extention policies (the policy of new cultivar development, the policy of cultivar extention), crop production, distribution, storage, postharvet and agricultural comodities handling policies.
B. Animal protection policies: conservation of wild and domestic animal policies, conservation of aquatic animals/inhabitats micro and macro animals policy systems. Insects or natural enermy policies
C. Conservation of (forests natural and artifical) policies, these are the major concerns of wealth creation.
D. Exploitation of natural resource policies; fishing policy, mining policy, afforastation policy, deforestation policy, rivers and lakes water usage policies.
E. International knowledge management policies on agriculture capacity projects/ capacity bulding of human resources management.
5. Can you share any examples of experiences that succeeded in reducing (or eradicating) extreme poverty through an agricultural pathway?
This is avery good question and am responding as a plant breeder/ crop production department: The production of new crop varieties in drought affected regions. In Uganda and Rwanda. In My MSc-research study, i had assignment of developing a maize variety in transitional agro-ecological zones of Uganda and succeded. We developed new varieties of maize which was doing better than local maize in those regions.
We look at interational crop production alliances, specifically for hunger eradication, through training agricultural scientists and crop production policy settings. Example alliance for green revolution in Africa (AGRA), succeded and still working well in hunger and poverty eradication, hope you know many others.
Rwandas economy is built on Agriculture about 98% and is currently rising simply because of strong policies in agriculture and agriculture production by the goverment now, not only Rwanda let me look on east africa at large the region to which i belong, her economy is built on agriculture, if you want to make her rich, please pay attention on her agricultural productivity.
let me stop here,
Thanks all members
I have reviewed presentations of the following scientists, while giving my views/ideas to them on some selected points thanks:
- Pradip DeyICAR-AICRP (STCR), Indian Institute of Soil Science, BhopalIndia ''The critical limit of exchangeable K varies for soil to soil and crop to crop although K-rating limits are irrespective of crops or soils. Moreover, supply of soil K to plants is a complex phenomenon involving dynamic equilibrium among its various chemical forms''.
- Andrew comment: This means that for adequate usage of k supply, one must consider variations in soil because different agro-ecological zones have different soils. therefore; CocoFer have to consider country different way of fertilizer handling.
From the attachment of the document presented by:
- Dick Tinsley Colorado State UniversityUnited States of America, the first paragraph says that: ''One of the aspects in promoting more sustainable agriculture for smallholders in developing countries is to promote enhanced nutrient cycling by relying on organic sources of plant nutrients''. the papers goes on to explain the inconveniencies and strong disadvantages of using organic fertilizers, and bulky solid plant materials in banana plantation illustrating misuse and heaviness of using organic fertilizer.
- Andrew comment: i strongly agree with the consern and inconveniencies presented by Dick T. USA; in the two attached documents; it caused me to have a look on advantages and disadantages of using organic and chemical fertilizers, and i learned that one must consider both sides (advantage and disadvantage), not just biasing on one fact. Also there must be extention agronomists advising farmers the plactice of using fertilizers (chemical or organic fertil).
- Dick Tinsley ''My concern is based on most host governments being financially stalled, with poorly paid civil officers and virtually no operating funds. The result could be testing of fertilizer quality being mostly on the honor/graduity system and access to limited supply of fertilizer requiring some informal payments to gain access''.
- Andrew comment: i gree, with this consern and advise that the cocofer must consider financial aspects of most countries especially developing countries, this means that; before implementing cocofer into action; survies research must be done from selected countries conserning country ideas on how fertilizers (organic and chemical) are being used, aswell farmers accessibility.
- I request to have a look on the concern presented by Dr. Amanullah Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture PeshawarPakistan ''On phosphatic fertilizers P2O5 is written on bags but the recommendations for growers is in the for of P not P2O5. The fertilizers industries just deceived the uneducated farmers in developing countries. I mean if the fertilizers industries write P on the bags insteadof P2O5 the amount percent on bags will decrease and the growers will know the actual amount of P. Likewise the problem of K2O on bags deceived farmers for K required in the form of MOP and SOP''.
- Andrew comment: This concern is very genuine; and it implies that labeling and the content is different, the needed element is very little being engulfed in un needed materials, which cause farmers to pay alot of money un necessarily, we can say; the cocofer must consider farmers losses and fartilizer manufacturers, giving fertilizer standadizations and genuine content inside ''matiere ajuva".
- Talal Darwish National Center for Remote Sensing-CNRS Lebanon; To promote responsible and judicious use of fertilizers, CoCOFe must be presented in friendly and simple way, accessible to decision makers, farmers, housekeepers with possibility of controling food quality and tracing back. I suggest to encourage MS to carry the assessment and mapping of soil fertility, soil and water quality, landuse planning based on land quality and suitability to promote multifunctional landuse only on soils with low background values of heavy metals and absence of pesticide residues and high concentration of nitrates and nitrites.
- Andrew comment: i have realised that most suggestions from different people, have some points in common about fertilizer amendiments, from the above point, i suggest cocofer managers must prepare survey and carry out soil assessment atlist few countries from every continent grobaly.
- Dr. Amanullah Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture PeshawarPakistan ''When applying 120 kg/hm2 N source, 75% N from urea + 25% N from organic source resulted in higher YC and GY in 2011, while applying 50% N from urea + 50% N from organic sources caused higher YC and GY in 2012. Therefore, the combined application of N sources in the form of urea + organic source can produce good performances in terms of higher YC and GY of rice under rice-wheat cropping system''.
- Andrew comment: do you know that i did this experiment in 2012; and i fount that mixing organic and chemical fertilizers (NPK), do better in maize field than sole chemical fertilizer (NPK), the higher grain yield were obtained in fertilizer mixtures than the sole application. This is simply because the dissociation of sole chemical fertilizer were direct and can be finished from the soil by weeds and crops together, but the dissociation of organic fert. is progressive, this means that though it is on small amount, it is keept present in the soil, the progressiveness of organic fertilizer keeps availability of required nutrients at a prolonged period than chemical fertilizer only.
- CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING
- I dont mean that organic fertilizer can replace chemical fertilizer, but i mean that the fore can be the assistant of the latter once the latter is absent or once farmers have no accessiblity.
- In developing countries we dont need a lot of machinery to recycle plant remains to make organic fertilizer, farmers make organic in simple and local way and it help them
- farmers only need local agronomists (abafashamyumvire) and help them to recycle the plant remains, most farmers are not able to buy chemical, and they use organic, here we dont mean that organic fertilizer replace chemical fertilizer.
- Farmers not need lorries and other machines to trasport organic, they trasport by themselves, please the cocofer must not base only on the big farming systems/ modernity/machinery, or big plantations, also consider small subsistance farming systems.
I request to view this Papers: very important
1.THE COMBINED USE OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND/OR BIOFERTILIZER FOR CROP GROWTH AND SOIL FERTILITY
Jen-Hshuan Chen Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung. Taiwan ROC.
2. Soil ferility and organic fertilizers in organic farming
Ivan Manolov 1 (Agricultural University, Plovdiv),
Ardian Maci 2 (Agricultural University of Tirana)
3. 52-Hidayat GY and YC-Rice Science-2016.pdf