Aquaculture Effluent: How to natural treatment
Dillution system of waste treatment will impact Eutrophication in coastal and river area.
The impact of dillution system are eutrophication of the water surrounding coastal and rivers areas. Fish excretion and fecal wastes combine with nutrients released from the breakdown of excess feed to raise nutrient levels well above normal, creating alga blooms. In Indonesia contaminated waste generated from industries, sewage, agriculture, aquaculture, etc. Once the resulting algal blooms die, they settle to the bottom where their decomposition depletes the oxygen. Before they die, however, there is the possibility that algal toxins are produced, the example is red tides. Although any species of phytoplankton can benefit from an increased nutrient supply, certain mplesspecies are noxious or even toxic to other marine organisms and to humans. The spines of some diatoms can irritate the gills of fish, causemple is exang decreased production or even death8. More importantly, blooms ("red tides") of certain species such as Chattonella marina often produce biological toxins that can kill other organisms. Neurotoxins produced by several algal species can be concentrated in filter-feeding bivalves such as mussels and oysters, creating a serious health risk to people consuming contaminated shellfish.
Intensive Farming system depend on a diet of artificial feed in pellet form. This feed is broadcast onto the surface of the water, and is consumed by the fish as it settles through the water column. Because not all the feed is eaten, a great deal of feed can reach the bottom where it is eaten by the benthos or decomposed by microorganisms. This alteration of the natural food web structure can significantly impact the local environment.The waste could be minimalization with natural management, like Moringa olifeira seed, Sargassum plagyophyllum, shellfish, ,polyculture with trophic level system, probiotic, etc
Dr. Nurul Istiqomah
Global major health problem of life style is the development of obesity and related diseases like coronary heart e.g.. A relationship between fish consumption and reduced mortality due to cardiovascular diseases has been shown. Curiously, in most studies the positive effect has been attributed to the intake of marine fatty acids alone, although lean and fatty fish have given the same protective effects in many studies. The presence and significance of additional beneficial components from seafood have attracted attention. My group (Food Science) is for instance occupied with research and teaching in the occurrence and function of LMW compounds in seafood. Amino acids (AA), vitamins, minerals and trace elements have of utmost importance among these. The AA composition in food is the major determinant of the protein nutritional quality of seafood. The effects of specific AA related to human health from seafood are also studied. Our main task here is to study losses of LMW compounds when processing or while preparing a meal. It is known that the nutritional quality depends on the quantity as well as the availability of the molecules. Processing makes food safer, tastier and more shelf-stable. On the other hand, processing can be detrimental, affecting the nutritional quality of foods. Possible biological active compounds may also be extracted from wastes of seafood. These could be used as dietary supplements or ingredients in foods (functional food). Fish wastes have a huge unexploited potential for value adding. The goal is to increase their use in foods, functional foods and biochemical products for human consumption. This area of research is expected to become even more important in the future since the amount of fish meal and oil is limited and new sources of biomass for food and feed have to be found.
Microalgae are the primary producers of many of the healthy components of seafood, like marine fatty acids og the 3 series and AA. New technologies for the harvest at lower tropic levels as well as techniques or technologies, genetic selection, breeding, manipulating growing conditions that enable and accelerates microalgae (algea, bacteria and zooplankton) ability to produce biomass for foods using standard industrial fermentation are rapidly evolving and in the future this may be a key for enhanced seafood production.
From the Norwegian report that focusses more on the economic potential of the ocean ( Attached) In particular for chapter 6.
Demand for food
In 2012 the world population reached the 7 billion mark, and is expected to be in excess of 9 billion in 2050. Almost the entire increase in population is anticipated to take place in cities in developing countries, where the numbers of people living in slum conditions is rising rapidly8. In 2010 there were almost 1 billion people suffering from malnutrition and in many countries 30-40% of agricultural production was lost. In order to keep pace with population increases and economic growth, which in turn increase the demand for food, overall food production must rise by 70% by 2050. Food from agricultural sources will most probably not be able to meet this need. Shortages of fresh water and the effects of climate change will reduce food production capacity in many regions.
Norway is currently responsible for the management of extensive tracts of highly productive ocean, and a coastline ideal for aquaculture production. For this reason, we have an ethical obligation to increase our exploitation of these areas in order to produce food, or products which themselves can be exploited for food production. In addition to traditional seafood, new food products can be produced from lower trophic levels, provided that harvesting is carried out on a sustainable basis. It is now possible to manufacture feed for the aquaculture sector, and to cultivate organisms which capture phosphates which are rapidly becoming very scarce as a source of fertilizer for global food production. Harvesting from the marine food chain is currently carried out at very high trophic levels at which stages the majority of primary production has been lost There is major potential in the harvesting of resources at lower trophic levels.
Edel O. Elvevoll
Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics (BFE)
University of Tromsø (UoT)
please find the link to a FAO paper I wrote on: Good practice policies to eliminate gender inequalities in fish value chains
Please find enclosed the german contribution to the draft study on
sustainable fisheries for further use.
I have been requested by the Division of Program Cooperation, Directorate General of Aquaculture, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, to provide you comments on HLPE Report "The Role of Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture for Food Security and Nutrition". The attached paper describe my comments on the Report. I sincerely hope that my comments would be constructive and useful.
Dr. Dimyati Nangju
1) Bringing improvement in the implementation of CCRF:
- We must accept the fact that FAO CCRF is yet to be comprehended and operationalized in many countries due to poor capacity of the line department, socio-political reasons and lack of political will. Besides, there are a number of sustainability related issues which are cross-sectoral and hence go beyond the jurisdiction of the line agency (Department of Fisheries). There is an urgent need for creating Global, National and State / Provincial level Overview Committees (SOC) to guide and monitor the implementation of CCRF. These national and State level Committees would also provide cross-sectoral coordination support. Among other emerging issues the SOC will address inter-sectoral conflicts related to resource use, promote environmental protection and rehabilitation programme, facilitate pollution reduction, bring convergence between the programme and projects of various sectors and improve research – development linkage. Leadership of departments like Department of Irrigation, Department of Environment and Forest, Department of Water Resources, Department of Revenue, Department of Rural Development, Department of Urban Development, Pollution Control Boards, Department of Animal Husbandry, Department of Dairy, Financial institutions, Fisheries / Aquaculture Research Institutes and the Department of Fisheries be brought under the fold of this committee. The committee may meet once in six months to review the progress of implementation of CCRF and deliberate on emerging sustainability issues and suggest future course of action.
- Encouraging and assisting the countries in developing long term plan and policies for the development of fisheries sector with due priority to environmental, social, nutritional and livelihood security under the overall framework of CCRF. Highlighting expected outputs in terms of nutritional security (per capita availability of fish to the native population), generation of additional employment, income generation (poverty to prosperity) and restoration of environment would be highly useful in convincing the policy makers and drawing their support.
2) How will nations maintain the integrity of the resources…….
- Government in general view the fisheries and aquaculture resources as a source of revenue generation and as such considerable time and efforts are directed towards generating revenue thereby resource sustainability concerns becomes secondary. If the national governments are made to realize that mainstreaming sustainability concerns across the resource user communities and assisting / empowering them in achieving their goals of livelihoods, environmental and nutritional security would equally help the state in realizing its inclusive economic growth objectives while reducing system loss.
- In many countries aquaculture and fisheries are not treated at par with agriculture in terms of allocation of water, water and power tariff and taxation. This anomaly is to be removed.
3) Socio-economic issues affecting sustainability …………….
- Poverty – resource degradation / over-exploitation of resource nexus.
- Existing access and use rights policies deserves improvement for the promotion of stewardship and assuming greater role of communities in resource use planning and responsible utilization of resources.
- Fisheries /aquaculture facilitates and encourages harvesting of rain and flood waters, holding them in undrainable ponds, floodplains, reservoirs, lakes etc., and allow these ecosystems in producing goods such as fish, aquatic fruits, plants, etc., and performing a range of other ecosystem services like supporting aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity, recharging ground water table and making water available for domestic use, irrigation, livestock animals, etc. All these clearly indicate the potential of complementarity of fisheries and aquaculture with other farming practices like livestock, dairy, horticulture, agriculture, etc., is enormous and deserves priority attention for development of integrated resource use.
4) To what extent can contribution be made to policy development …………..
- Co-management / Community based management regime be made mandatory for receiving subsidies with regard to Common Pool Property Resources.
5) Gender specific needs………….
- Housing facilities are extended to fishing communities as welfare measure. By giving ownership of the house to the women member of the family would help women in accessing institutional finance and other entitlements.
- Small-scale ornamental fish breeding and rearing enterprise be kept reserved for women.
- Similarly, women members of the farm family be given priority for receiving subsidy and other incentives meant for homestead pond based aquaculture.
6) What continuous improvements …….
- Institutional strengthening in the fisheries sector with special attention towards improvement of data base, introduction of computer based monitoring and evaluation system, strengthening of fisheries extension services and introducing a strong component on social mobilization to facilitate strengthening of community organizations.
- Greater involvement of NGOs as service providers especially in the area of community empowerment, delivery of extension services, etc.
7) How sustainable aquaculture …………….
- Fish health / disease management be adequately incorporated in aquaculture package of practices
- Quarantine, health certification and regulation related to transboundry movement of aquatic animals be strengthened and enforced
- CCRF and other guidelines be followed for the introduction of exotics
- Replacing fish meal with vegetable protein rich feed ingredients.
- Promotion of aquaculture practices which depend largely on primary productivity and where application of feed is supplemental
- Promotion of rain fed undrainable earthen ponds which rely on harvesting and holding of rainwater.
International Civil Service (FAO of UN)- Retired
Ex-Director / VC, CIFE (ICAR), Mumbai
Fisheries Development Advisor- Government of UP, MP and Bodoland Territorial Development Council (BTC)
Please find my input to your consultation on the Role of Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture for Food Security and Nutrition.
Thank you for the invitation and opportunity to provide comments on the planned work.
With respect to issue 1 - Fisheries ecolabelling schemes that operationalize the FAO code of conduct provide viable mechanisms for fisheries to implement the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible fishing. Many fisheries are using Fisheries Improvement Projects as a route to work towards improving sustainability and meet fishery ecolabelling performance standards. The incentive of market support for sustainability provides strong encouragement for fisheries to improve practices and ultimately reap economic benefits from being sustainable. These benefits ensure the continued sustenance of the resource and ensure that livelihoods and food security is safeguarded.
The study will benefit from a review of the development and evolution of these Fishery Improvement Project initiatives and from exploring how uptake of Fisheries Improvement Projects may be scaled up to increase the extent of participation of fisheries in FIPs. This issue is also related to issue 3. The market should reward fishers for good stewardship of resources. Sustainability as a value-added attribute ensures sustainable growth.
With respect to issue 6, the lack of data for fisheries in many countries is a severe constraint to successful management of fisheries resources in many instances. Improved capacity for research and fisheries studies will be hugely beneficial to fisheries. Fisheries research particularly for developing countries needs to be tailored to country specific needs and needs to be affordable. Development of capacity in fisheries research will contribute immensely to sustainable management. The study should pay attention to understanding means and mechanisms to improve research capacity and identification of cost effective research tools and methods.
On the last issue, issue 10, the importance of resource accountability cannot be overestimated. It should in fact be treated as a separate component worthy of attention in own right. Transparency of information about fisheries resources, allocation, management and data will empower stakeholders to be able to participate effectively in how fisheries resources are managed and to robustly challenge misuse or misappropriation of fisheries resources. Access of stakeholders to fisheries information needs to improve to match opportunities provided in a digital age. Some of the challenges of accountability are related to data limitations. The lack of robust findings from credible research can often mean there is in fact no information available that can be used to hold management to account. The study should explore factors limiting transparency of information in fisheries information systems used in the fisheries sector and should aim at understanding constraints to sharing information with a view to identifying and recommending policies to ensure information about fisheries is more widely shared by government with the general public and key stakeholder groups.
Fish contains a number of healthy properties important to human health. That is why nutrition is mentioned i.e. in the Rio+20 declaration where the role of fish and food security is touched upon. It is important to include the nutritional aspect of fish consumption in all deliberations on how fisheries and aquaculture can contribute to global food security. This HLPE report is no exception. We therefore propose that a separate key issue covering this issue is added to the Terms of Reference, or otherwise included in the Terms of Reference. Attached you will find a Norwegian text proposal that we ask the HLPE Steering Committee to consider.
Henrik H. Weisser
Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs
The FAO Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture (FI) welcomes the decision of the Committee on world food security (CFS) to request the High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) to undertake a study on the role of sustainable fisheries and aquaculture for food security and nutrition to be presented at the CFS plenary in 2014. Although asserted at high levels meetings, e.g. the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20), the important contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to food security and nutrition has not always received the attention it deserves, and most strategies aiming at improving food security neglect the fisheries and aquaculture or make only passing reference to it. FI would like the HLPE to fill this gap by (i) mapping the real contribution fisheries and aquaculture makes or can make to food security and nutrition and (ii) recommend policies to ensure that food security strategies incorporate the fisheries and aquaculture sector.
In so doing, the HLPE study should look at fisheries and aquaculture sector not only as a provider of high quality proteins, but also as an equally important, unique source of micronutrients such as long chained omega-3 fatty acids necessary for brain and neurodevelopment in children, The latter underlines the importance of fish in the diets for women of childbearing age, infants and young children. Of importance is also the presence in fish of minerals/trace elements and vitamins essential for combating various disorders due to iodine, zinc and/or vitamin A deficiencies which still affect millions of people, particularly in the developing world. Looking towards the goal of eradicating hunger and under-nutrition, the HLPE should focus specifically on the role of small scale fisheries and the importance of fish such as small pelagics, small self-recruiting fishes, or aquatic animals in rice based farming systems that are low value but highly nutritious.
In addition to assessing the real contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to food security, FI would like the HLPE study to assess the necessary resources and collaboration frameworks at global, regional and national levels that can make this contribution to global food security effective, building on past and ongoing initiatives. As stated in the scope of this e-consultation, the world leaders at the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio + 20) stated in article 13 of the document agreed by the Conference “we also stress the crucial role of healthy aquatic eco-systems, sustainable fisheries and sustainable aquaculture for food security and nutrition, and in providing the livelihoods of millions of people”. Policy recommendations to governments, the donor community, private sector and civil society would be useful in this respect.
Specific Comments on the issues raised by the HLPE
Regarding the key questions that the report poses, in line with the request from CFS, and that could form the building blocks of the report, FI has the following comments [see attachment].
Population growth and climate change are going to stress the global food production system in the course of the 21st century. Constraints on fresh water supply and arable land, concern over carbon emissions associated with protein production, and human health considerations are likely to favor increased protein production from the oceans. Better management of wild fish stocks is mainly a question of political will and economics; but even if we get that right, wild stocks will not provide the additional seafood supply that will be needed as world population approaches 9 billion. That can only come from aquaculture. Developed and developing countries alike will have to consider how they will ensure seafood supply in light of these factors.
In developed countries, such as the United States, increasing marine aquaculture production is mainly a question of resolving use conflicts in the coastal zone and technology/economics further offshore. Developing countries face important choices in the aquaculture development path they pursue, as large-scale aquaculture operations build with foreign investment and focused on export markets have very different consequences for domestic economic development and protein supply than small-scale projects focused on native species and domestic markets.
The global potential for increased protein production from marine aquaculture in particular is immense. Appropriate forms of marine aquaculture can generate healthy forms of protein (and income) with lower carbon and ecological footprint than many land-based alternatives. It will be important to provide objective and science-based guidance to governments of developing countries seeking to increase seafood protein supply in ways that conserve and sustain marine environmental resources and ecosystems.
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