What will be required at the local, regional and global levels to ensure an effective partnership?
Small-scale fishing is much more significant than most people realize. Like small-scale agriculture, small-scale fishing is widespread and crucial to employment and food supply in innumerable communities in developing nations, where some 95 percent of all fishers ply their trade (FAO 2002a) quoted in (Yumiko, et al., 2004).
Raising awareness of the importance of small-scale fisheries is particularly relevant not only because these livelihoods depend on sustainable use of the natural resource base, but also because these fisheries provide vital local nutritious food and a safety net for many poor households in coastal communities in developing countries (World Bank, 2010).
In addressing the issues of communication among small scale fisheries one need to first address the issues by strengthening the political and economic rights of the small-scale fisheries actors, empowerment and capacity building. Fishing communities should have access to health, education and other social services. Their resilience needs to be increased – in general and with regard to natural disasters and climate change consequences in particular. It requires a focus on reducing vulnerabilities and promoting responsible fishing practices together with addressing social and economic development needs. While some experience exists from such integration of resource governance and social development, tools and methods still need to be developed in order that environmental, resource and community rights and sustainability are considered concurrently.
When it comes to ensuring an effective partnership at the local level strengthening local organizational structures help people to be represented and take part in decision-making processes. There is a need to work with communities to enhance their organizational capacity, building on existing structures and strengths. The focus should be on enabling individuals and institutions to effectively use their newly acquired capacity to address their priority needs. Also at the local level the evolving of women isimportant because about (47 percent) of women, mainly engaged in the post-harvest activities, handling the fish after it is caught and ensuring that this important source of nutrition reaches more than 1 billion consumers for whom fish is a key component of their diets (World Bank, 2010).
Moreover, an effective partnership at the regional level can be promoted by fostering a link between stakeholders NGOs and research institutions. These organizations often have specific skills in training extension, communication and research that can assist both government and communities with their responsibilities for fisheries management. These organizations can also help local managers formulate and evaluate their management plans by providing knowledge and advice and helping design and implement effective data collection systems. Other important related roles might include developing communication networks and facilitating information sharing.
Additionally at the global level ensuring an effective partnership can be implemented by supporting knowledge mobilization, leadership capabilities (of men and women), research partnerships and the use of effective communication tools (making use of new technologies and social media). Programs and networks for experience sharing and collaboration would aid in the context of strengthening existing organizations and ensuring that the necessary institutional structures and capacity are in place to secure sustainable small-scale fisheries. Also the need for empowerment through organizational development and collective actions is one of the key elements of SSF Guidelines implementation.
Further readings International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-scale Fisheries,2012. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Challenges and opportunities – needs for support and interventions
According to the FAO’s State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Report 2012, more than ninety percent (90%) of all capture fishers are operating in the small-scale sector, with women playing a key role in post-harvest activities. The livelihoods of about 357 million people, primarily in developing countries, depend on the sector which often constitutes a fundamental way of life as well as an important economic activity. These guidelines establish principles and criteria for the elaboration and implementation of policies and strategies for the enhancement of small-scale fisheries governance and development. It also provides practical guidance for implementation of these policies and strategies. However, theses guideline are subject to challenges as it regards to the implementation process.
Meeting present and future food needs, ensuring environmental integrity and providing income and employment in the fishery sector is a balancing act given the finite productive capacity of resources and a complex challenge given the uncertainty over this productivity. However, addressing these issues is what makes governance possibly the most complex of the challenges. There are potentially many stakeholders who may wish to gain access to, or control over fisheries resources or influence management decisions. These individuals and groups may have very differing views of what sustainability is, based on their world views and attitudes to risk, and therefore what sorts of priorities, decisions and outcomes would be appropriate for a fishery.
Due to poverty and vulnerability, small-scale fishing communities may lack the incentives to participate in resource management and these aspects of poverty need to be addressed first, or simultaneously. Appropriate incentive structures (institutional, legal, economic, and social) are needed to enable small-scale fishing communities to sustainably manage the aquatic resources they and future generations depend on for their well-being without jeopardizing their social and economic development.
It is important to create opportunities for exchange of views among stakeholder groups to learn from each other. Accordingly, for both implementation and monitoring along with the development of capacity at all levels, appropriate institutional arrangements are required, including partnerships for policy formulation and involvement of grassroots level organizations. Partnerships among all stakeholders are critical for this process. Many opportunities for establishing and strengthening these partnerships already exist and given financial and human resource constraints, existing platforms and institutional arrangements should be used for this purpose. Fisheries agencies for example could interact with peers in other countries and regional organizations (e.g. in Africa, NEPAD Sub-regional Fisheries Commission, in Asia, SEAFDEC, ASEAN, SPC etc.) could play a critical role in facilitating regional, sub regional and national implementation strategies and plans focusing on the issues pertinent to the specific regions and countries.
In the Philippines for example, the Fisheries Code endorses the establishment of Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Councils, formed by fisheries organizations, cooperatives and NGOs at the national, municipal and village level, which are mandated to carry out a number of advisory functions in close collaboration with the local government units. Existing inter-sectoral processes and collaborative arrangements such as for climate change adaptation, coastal zone management or socio-economic development and planning at different level are other potential entry points.
FURTHER READINGS: Toward sustainable fisheries management by M.R.A.G.
Supporting instruments for the Implementation of small fisheries guidelines
A key starting point in establishing a sustainable platform can be capacity building of users within targeted zones. By zones we mean fishing areas where several communities or tribes derive their living. Training and education organized through private public partnership can serve as instruments to sensitize users of risks associated with poor practices relative to that of a sustainable behavior. Education in this context of sustainability needs to be mindful of the user background especially in developing countries (DC). Many fishers in DC are so by possibly culture or socialization. Hence, terms such as open access, replenishing rate, depletion and so on may have little value. This form of education must be specialized so that the issues are clearly understood. In addition, information dissemination through technological sources where possible can also provide a ready source of prompt response to users with uncertainty regarding usage of these zones. Training will target best practices.
Odusina identified the role of advocacy as a critical component in supporting the implementation of voluntary guideline of SSF. However, by extension, the nature of advocacy should also focus on empowering citizens not only for change but to enforce change. This enforcement capacity has been the weakness of several types of implementations whether it be laws or otherwise. Therefore, to ensure cohesion between guidelines and practice capacity needs to be built so that enforcement is achievable. When enforcement is possible, accountability across all levels becomes a realistic objective.
One of the engines to support the implementation process is partnerships. By partnerships we mean lobbying governments in DC to provide an enabling environment for the Private Sector, NGO, Civil Society, FBO and other organization to freely participate in the process of implementation. Legislative protection must also be part of this partnership framework. It would be difficult for some of these groups to work effectively in potentially challenging environment without a sense of protection. It is natural for people to try to circumvent at some point, rules they may have agreed to sometime in the past. Therefore legislative enactments serve as a deterrent motivating factor.
Finally, to achieve optimal compliance some form of verification and monitoring should be established. Where zones require the use of small boats licensing, would be insufficient to influence operators to adhere to these rules since a cost may be imposed. Therefore to the extent whereby deviation of standard practice is observed a form of corrective measure should be applied to ensure that norms are upheld.