Este miembro participó en las siguientes discusiones
I have developed and supported the use of Mobile Garden Carts (MGC) projects as we have lived in various nations and climates around the globe. These Mobile Garden Carts can be constructed wholly of recycled/reclaimed materials, or of new-use materials (and portions of proceeds used to help provide MGCs to in-need (landless, homeless, refugee, other) populations, consisting of wheeled platform(s) and pipe/vertical elevations used to support additional container-plantings, water supplies, optional composting, small-animal (rabbit/fowl) housing, seed propagation and/or drying racks, and protective netting/sheeting (plastic 'greenhousing').
When MGC gardeners are not allergic to bees, or in risk-prone areas, however, in addition to, or instead of small animal/fowl housing, these carts can be outfitted with small apiaries, much like those used at field edging or on rooftop gardens, to hive bees within the Mobile Garden Cart system itself.
Mobile Garden Cart plantings can always include pollinator-friendly fruits, vegetables, herbs and flowers. However, when food-supply is less a priority than pollinator protection, MGCs can be planted entirely with pollinator-friendly herbs, flowers, and other plants. In mega-city, refugee-city and other densely-inhabited zones where bee, butterfly, and pollinating insect/bird populations have been threatened or all-but-obliterated, these carts can encourage a resurgence in pollinator numbers, as well as providing marketable herbs, flowers, and potentially sustainable quanties of honey.
Such MGCs can also promote citizen interaction, education, inclusion, rehabilitation and recuperation--especially if climate-stable hives with clear acrylic sides are possible (allowing viewing/increased understanding of the industry of the bees). MGCs can be designed to fit doorways/elevators and move from living space to sidewalk, roadside to rooftop, refugee-settlements, homeless shelters, parks, museums, evacuation shelters and civic centers, and be located inside dwelling spaces, airport terminals, shopping centers, sports stadiums, hospital 'open zones,' special needs and age-differentiated centers, or anywhere else plants can conceivably be included, and awareness of the irreplaceable contributions of bees/pollinators to our life systems raised.
Here is a link to one example of Mobile Garden Cart inclusion, in Barcelona, Spain, 2010. The specific project is no longer in operation, but Global Giving foundation provides links to many ongoing projects.
My apologies for arriving late to this discussion topic. These two footnotes from my Thesis on Crisis Management, Counterterrorism and Sustainable Development, written in 1992-1993, seem relevant to the discussion. They are rather densely-written (my apologies, the thesis was getting long enough without multiple digressions for worthy sub-topics necessary for defense of the overall thesis), but, I hope, pertinent. It seems factors affecting the balance of food security and the need for policy interventions have not altered significantly, and perhaps this short presentation might be of some interest here.
The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) was created at the G-7 Economic Summit in June, 1989. Participants at the Summit decided that the international drug trade and money laundering had become a threat to overt global financial systems, and that an effective enforcement/deterrent approach would be to pursue, seize, and obtain the forfeiture of the profits of illicit (trafficking) activities. At the 1990 Summit, the FATF issued 40 recommendations for member countries to implement as counter-money laundering measures (reference also the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances – which 72 states/nations have ratified or acceded to at this writing). The most significant actions were the criminalization of money laundering, the creation of asset forfeiture programs, the establishment of know-your-customer policies, and the encouragement of mutual legal assistance and other cooperation among law enforcement/regulatory/ and other agencies. FATF membership currently includes most of Europe, Japan, Canada, the United States, and a number of other Asian/Pacific nations as well.
More than 100 governments have adopted or are now considering adopting provisions which would criminalize money laundering, regulate the flow of currency and monetary instruments, mandate records of currency and other monetary instrument transactions, require declarations of beneficial or nominee owners of accounts and holdings, and compel disclosure of suspicious transactions. Provisions in many governments include the listing of terrorism among their laws against organized crime and drug trafficking – statutes allowing enforcement efforts against the financial infrastructures supporting terrorism might, similarly to the FATF recommendations and resultant legal provisions, be promulgated and instituted to successfully offset the burgeoning profits of violence and terrorism on a national and international scale.
For those stakeholders in legitimate state and economic infrastructures whose responsibilities, as members of consensual civil society, include the protection and respect (and necessary education, access, and accountability of members, citizens, and dependents) of rights, liberties and safety-security-sustainability on human and environmental scales, and the reinforcing and evolution of those concepts of rights and responsibilities, codification, a “breadcrumb trail” of the ethical, legal, and practical bases for such decisions is irreplaceable, and necessary for evaluation of present, and future progress.
For those (currently unrecognized) disenfranchised, excluded, or merely co-existing in an informal setting/sector, whose investment in the legal and social infrastructures is circumstantial, “stakeholder” benefits become increasingly irrelevant. The interests of shared values, shared needs for social and environmental protection, shared aspirations for selves/dependents, and perhaps NOT-SHARED, but concomitant needs simply, to reach a place of security where the concept of social-benefits, social-protections, environmental and social diversity, and the possibility (however remote from circumstance) of a “better life” might someday replace the desperate, nothing-to-lose pursuit of any life at all, lessens, or reduces to irrelevant, “civil society” concepts of inter- and intra- dependence. Standing on the shoulders of out-caste/outcast classes, of generations of marginalized peoples to whom the balance of power and brokers of power have “traditionally” been the loudest, strongest, most affluent (and most insulated by possession, education, “droit de seigneur” and myriad other codes of exclusion), and best-armed (whether with weapons, wealth, legal systems, scholars, and, now, media and communications), logically, the most efficient form of “rebellion,” the most effective refutation, the most economical (when one has little but human capital to spend) form of restitution has been violence. Without legal recourse, without sufficient education, without access to media, communications, politics, wealth, or power, “terrorism” has become a “solution of choice,” a universal “leveler” in the off-grid wars for power among the least-served, and least-recognized of communities, states, nations, and the larger collateral of humanity.
Thus, logically, laws and codes, statutes, memos-of-understanding, charters, treaties, trade agreements, and the other infrastructures of “civil society” may serve to define legal standing, allowable behaviors and choices, and criminal abrogation of the same. But unless pro-active measures to redress insufficiencies of equality (equality of talent which should be gender-blind, age-blind, caste/culture-blind; and equality of “rights” which must include all), access, and expression, to ensure safe, stable, secure, and sustainable infrastructures, human and biodiverse societies are instituted, such laws will remain tacitly moot, ineffective in the long term of including the least-invested, the ‘non-stakeholders’ of so many local, state, national, regional, and our global human societies. And ethical exercises which promulgate superficial approvals of the historic achievements of societies which have thus far failed to provide for the differently-abled, differently-accessed, and remotely-located, under- or non- included, and under- or non-served segments of humanity remain merely exercises.
Obviously, humans are capable of vastly diverse strata of comprehension, ability, and accomplishment. Not every person can attain levels of expertise in the myriad sectors of involvement to which our race/species has thus far climbed. As obviously, concepts of inter- and intra- dependence dictate that our relative position, role, and responsibilities upon the globe we inhabit would logically dictate that we do no irreparable harm to our habitats, our environmental spheres (air, land, oceans, species-generative) as we evolve and continue to develop our infrastructures and social codes.
History demonstrates that, in times of conflict, unrest, grave natural disasters or other socially-disruptive events, when males have been conscripted, imprisoned, or have died in conflicts, wars, or civil struggles, women and children have undertaken the jobs (farming, unskilled and skilled labor, depending upon the epoch) left vacant. “Sworn men” were left, generally unthreatened, to cross gender barriers into occupations and situations which had been “exclusively” male. Absent parents or other adults or infrastructures to support them, children learned trades, but also experienced ownership (whereas child labor is generally viewed, in stable modern society, as bondage, human trafficking, and other illegal forms). Without the intervention of politics, of border-dependent infrastructures, people tend to rediscover an equilibrium of sorts. Children will play in the rubble of destroyed homes or villages. Animals will graze in fields strewn with trash and even the evidence of destruction. People will work to find food, water, shelter—or they will collect what they can, and leave for a place of safety where they can find food, water, shelter. Food, and water, before all else, become the primary concerns, and the most significant indications of security after conflict or disaster. Even among the homeless, the displaced persons not of conflict but of impoverishment, food and water security are vital—and can spell the difference between survival and desperation, between a hope for a better future and a descent into an inherently disastrous intersection of unmet needs, unequal access, “black markets” or crisis-induced “counter-social movements,” and the potential for crime, violence, and greater conflict.
[Quick, stop-gap measures, like mono-culture food-for-drug, or plant-for-guns substitutions can lead to disastrous results, as well. Lack of appropriate soil and water resources can lead to dependence on black-market seed providers for seeds, fertilizers, access to markets, even for subsistence-level nutritional security. Re-purposing poppy fields in Northern Thailand; re-planting war-torn fields in Sierra Leone; re-claiming salt-saturated mineral depleted lands left from unsustainable inland shrimp or fish farms, salt-evaporation fields or strip-mines along shore-line or rift-zones around the globe become rallying-cries laced with promise and potential for environmental and economic recovery. But such efforts all too often fall short of expected goals.
Ancient crops, like the saline-tolerant cover-grain barley, the wide range of resilient palms, the drought- and poor-soil cassava (manioc, yuca, leaf-canopy plant with edible starchy root-tubers), the sand- and poor-soil tolerant evergreen shrub yucca (green, spear-like leaves providing cloth fibers and needles; edible asparagus-like stalk, subsequent flowers and fruit; edible tuber-root; pith and wood-fibers for fuel and other purposes) across the planet for thousands of years.
Cassava has become increasingly popular as a mono-culture (beyond tapioca) despite the labor-intensive (the harvested root is heavy to carry , and highly perishable) nature of plant-to-food production (while the crop can grow “in stasis” for harvesting any time between about 6 months and two years, increasing starch (carbohydrate) content, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, and thiamin, the roots must be processed extensively to make them safe to eat. Unprocessed, raw cassava contains high levels of cyanogenic glococides, and requires extensive processing to release cyanide gas. Insufficient access to time for sun-drying or to water for cooking and/or fermentation leads to partial paralysis and brain injury). Cassava (manioc) is easily cultivated by replanting stems (though insect infestations may be transmitted through lack of plant rotation); leaves and stems can feed animals, provide fire-wood, compost, and be used for growing mushrooms. It also produces industrial-grade starches.
Grown in combination with staple grains, lentils, or other food products, the cassava can be an inexpensive, resilient, and essential food crop for small holder farmers, and its leaf-canopy (when sufficient water exists to support leaf growth) can provide shade and diminish evaporation which might damage less-hardy crops. The processed, dried root is (as fermented flour, tapioca or other products) quite versatile, and does not hold the difficulties of transport, nor the danger of eating insufficiently processed roots, and is a reliable food source for many segments of the global population, not only as a food staple, but as a dessert item.
Anecdotal writings in Africa (West African Folk Tales, W.H. Barker and C. Sinclair, Harrap Press, 1917, and the Mongo Proverbs and Fables, E.A. Ruskin, Congo Balola Mission Press, 1921) tell of competitions between the manioc (cassava) and the plantain (banana), for food security and provision of fibers for cloth and baskets, as well as the oil palm and the raffia palm—used to produce oil, palm sauce, wine, salt, clothing, trap, broom and basket fibers, leaf shelters, et cetera. Generally, in the African tales, the cassava “won” because the plantain died after two or three cuttings, whereas the cassava can grow season after season. The raffia palm also “won,” although on shakier grounds, because (paraphrased) One may walk hungry in front of people, but not naked…
This raises another issue—in modern times, even viewing large segments of displaced populations, clothing does not seem an issue of grave concern except in cases of weather-related exposure. Everyone always seems to find something to wear (although, arguably, once at least one outfit is procured, clothing may be worn constantly, until it wears to threads and holes, while thirst and hunger return repeatedly)—even if lack of appropriate costume, foot wear (and hygiene) may be further cause for social exclusion. In this sense, food and water security tend to remain the most pressing of issues among impoverished, landless, refugee, and other underserved / at-risk populations, and, among these, women and children have been the least-served, least-capable of competing for limited resources, and most-dependent upon safe access (in many cases, women and children still cannot boast ownership) to land, or land alternatives (mobile garden carts, pots or hanging cloth-and-plastic bags of soil-and-compost) as well as sources of seeds or clippings and sources of water for growing subsistence- or higher- levels of food / plant crops for nutritional security, and, if extra exists, for sale (economic security).]
And any amelioration of existing conflicts, of local/global uncertainties-crises (climate change, weather-disaster, earthquake, etc.), of cross-border grievances and conflicts affecting trade, sanctions, and access/exchange of goods and services must include consideration of safe, sustainable food and water sourcing, energy sourcing, health and well-being. Especially as media become more immediate and available, people of all genders and ages can see how others live, how others are treated. A lack of commensurate amenities may breed resentment—but a poverty of circumstance, dearth of food, water, shelter, can breed desperation, and increase the potential for social divisions, civil unrest, violent conflict, or terrorism.
Any definition of terrorism imposed on an uninformed, or non-participative population or segment thereof is “top-down” infrastructuring which would be discounted, or viewed as a desirable target for opposition, for blaming the “they” and “them” and “those” who are viewed as the oppressors, the privileged, the few/many who conveniently, namelessly, hold most possessions, power, and access. Dehumanization, dissociation, and subjugation of targets of best-effect, targets of opportunity, and nameless opponents work both ways—and collateral losses are as acceptable, if not more so, to terrorists/outcasts-seeking-power-and-recognition, as to any political or military power seeking to repress them.
And until the structures and capacities of human governance and involvement truly enable “know your customer” or “know your constituent” practices, FATF, counter-terrorism, and other laws, treaties, and guidelines remain merely superficial dressings, codes enabling criminal prosecutions for digression, but still, guidelines—requiring neither the best inclusion, efforts, and responsibilities of those governing and enforcing them, or those whom the codes and laws would govern. And any cause-and-effect approaches would better empower all possible constituents, stakeholders (whether participative or not) and active (participative) contributor to the webbing of information, capacities (from skills to global infrastructures of power, food, water, transit, communications, information, education, and arts, etc.), bio-diverse ecosystems, and cultures and traditions which help define, differentiate, and develop our human interactions in this global setting. Our cultures, traditions, languages, local mores, habits and tastes are the costuming and consumer-appropriate segments of our concepts of self, society, and sustainability. But our ethics, our position as one (human) earth species among many millions of earthlings (if thus far the most capable of advancement, improvement, or destruction of a majority of self- and other- species-members), our responsibility to tolerate, respect, protect are what raise us, as humans, above the daily win-lose struggles of survival which confront most other species on this planet. We are capable of recording history, of learning from it, of postulating new theories, new social codes, new sciences, which can become shining realities—and, yet, in the short term, we are at a cross-roads, where economic, environmental, and human terrorism, war, and other civil dissociation, dysfunction, and dissolution can destroy us all.
While the amelioration and redress of “vulnerabilities” to disaster, forces natural and catastrophic, remains on the periphery of these considerations, attention must also be given to at-risk populations living in risk-prone areas. When weak, insufficient and/or non-existent modern infrastructures are daily realities to impoverished, marginalized and/or refugee segments of populations, where no policies, programs and/or projects exist (or where they are only sporadically applied—or where they exist due to ephemeral “popular” attention, media coverage and sensationalism, and can dwindle again to insufficiency once the public eye has moved on to more trending/engaging causes), disasters, or even merely hazards, can decimate individual and social capacities to withstand them.
When disruptive, hazardous, and/or catastrophic events intersect with poorly-established, barely-balanced environmental, energy, economic and subsistence-existence conditions of impoverished, marginalized, or unserved populations, impacts are immediate, and sometimes, when combined with inadequacies of education, health-care (routine, endemic, epidemic, and disaster-related events), water and food security, and social/demographic-disparities engendering a lack of options (for survival, let alone livelihood or concepts of self-worth), the intersection of disaster with fragile populations can have irreversible effects (the “lost generations” of child-soldiers, of abused or trafficked children, of populations stopped at border-crossings, unable to reach food, water, urgently-needed health-intervention, etc., are only some examples).
Un-planned/poorly-constructed urban or rural expansion (destroying soil/surface environments and underlying stability, and increasing vulnerability to: erosion; heat-inversions; trash/pollution proliferation; microbial, pest and parasite infestations, etc.), and pirated power-grids, surface-water sourcing, poor sanitation for food supply, and of waste, compound risks to climatic, geological, and other “natural” disasters.
While social, political, technological, supply- and transportation- and infrastructure- modernizations can ameliorate the effects of disasters for the “enfranchised” populations, crisis management and risk reduction efforts seem to stop at the borders of shanty-towns, remote villages or isolated dwellings, slums, refugee-camps, and other marginalized or non-included areas. Political, social, civil, ethical will must exist to improve these inadequacies, to mitigate these insufficiencies, or the risks of having crisis-vulnerable populations will move beyond the capacities of “good-will” actors to intervene. Risk-vulnerable populations will turn to whatever means they find available to eke out a living, and when social infrastructures do not address the disparities they see and endure on a daily basis, the fabric of that society, claiming to have “authority” or “care” for those populations, will be torn.
At-risk populations can become recruitment grounds for crime, violence, terrorism; an uncertain life-span enriched by inclusion in illegal enterprises is, for many, more preferable than an uncertain life-span spent unrecognized, unrecompensed, unwanted, and un-wept by a society with eyes blinded to the unsustainable conditions under which these populations subsist.
Systems of sustainable development, sustainable infrastructures, sustainable governance, must include the safe, secure, and stable existence of all segments of their provenance (human, here, but eco-systemic as well). No system can be sustainable without inclusion of those most challenged, most vulnerable, most affected by risks, disasters, or the mere exigencies of a dis-advantaged, dis-abled, dis-enfranchised life.
Seemingly regardless of race, origin, or culture, legitimate and illegitimate activities, crime and sometimes terrorism, political and public life, media and popular culture can create super-classes of wealthy scions, who can use their wealth as insulation, to purchase legal protections, and distance from the daily deterioration, and crisis-accelerated disintegration of impoverished lives.
Systems of good governance, planning, programs and projects to empower populations previously peripheral to the polity, previously swept beneath the “social floors” of public perception, will strengthen the capacities of social systems, and build sustainable, mutually-reliant, and resilient populations, with an appreciation of those infrastructures which enable that sustainability.
Without the good-will of the populations being governed, any system of laws, any protocol of crisis-management, any redress of catastrophe will be flawed, and, ultimately, as vulnerable to dissolution, totalitarianism, and ongoing criminal enterprises, as any unregulated nation-state, emergent social force, military insurrection, or isolated community.
While the vastness of the challenges confronting any architecture of a ‘global peace’ or a solution of sustainability are staggering, there must be a commonality of approach, a harnessing of dynamics, a sharing of best-practices, a taking of first-steps. Though the clamor of war, the competition of industry, the conflict of nations seem more pressing, and garner more media coverage… though the next earthquake or cyclone or hurricane, the floods, the fires, the mudslides burn images indelible on the public eye, there must be a cognizance that underlying our sense of shock and vulnerability at confronting these events is a real, glaring inadequacy in our individual and global social fabric.
When some use and deplete the resources shared globally, when some live without food enough or water to survive even one more day, an unsustainable imbalance threatens the globe increasingly diminished by an ever-expanding, still-violent, still-destructive, human population. Stepping from the shaded insulation of isolated safe-havens, or from the precipices of destruction, is difficult. However, we must arrive at global, inter-national, national, community, and individual-level recognitions of needs, agreements of capabilities, involvement in problem-solving, interest in and commitment to responsibility, and investment in a shared, intra-dependent future, in order to begin to implement any solution(s).
While it seems prosaic and miniscule in the context of global sustainability, one tangible and definable intervention can include a guideline of money-laundering laws, such as those promulgated through the participative efforts of the FATF, a guideline of definitions and laws to mitigate, ameliorate, and possibly eliminate terrorism and insurrection and war (and potentially, eventually, the need for them) are glaring necessities of our common human infrastructures and societies at present.
The laws and definitions of responsibilities, reciprocities, and consequences for choices and actions at present are not a panacea for the ills of humankind, nor can they be a shining beacon of light for the peaceful advancement of human and all other earth-species and environments.
But codification common grounds, of common interests, of universal “rights” and responsibilities, and the codification of crimes against humans, against this code of universally-recognized human- and environmental- and eco-systemic rights, and codification of a means to redress them, is a good place to start.
Additionally, when drug cultivation, production, packaging, and/or transshipping cross porous contiguous borders (whether the governments on either side of those borders have “closed” them or not), the transit routes of smugglers are often dangerous to any local, or official business or activities in the area. Since smugglers are not exclusively limited to transshipping drugs, however, many other products, goods and services can exist in “black” or “shadow” economies which can rival and surpass “open market goods” in quality, quantity and price, until legitimate marketplaces fail, and only the “black market” goods remain available—at which point, predictably, market monopolization enables the holders of the goods/services (the beneficial owners, not necessarily the trans-shippers or marketers) to raise the prices exorbitantly.
A cascading effect of seeking essential goods/services/drugs and prohibitively high prices leads to increases in other crimes to amass cash-for-purchase; tax-bases of locations collapse due to lack of legitimate/reported income; social services and base-line protection levels collapse, as do sanitary, police, judicial/civil, and educational services; area populations become inured to violence and crime, seek inclusion and power from the “black market” power base at the cost of further erosion of social services, education, and legitimate financial institutions… In weak systems of governance, officials can retain positions and gain rank and power by themselves entering the corrupted system, and the course of justice itself becomes corrupted and vulnerable to purchased influence, or paid protection.
Although modern technologies are enabling increasing levels of report-ability and transparency due to accessibility of information, standardized methods and levels of disclosure, expectations of social protection, legal protection, liberties, and ethical responsibilities, the “shadow” economies and “shadow” crim-ocracies, controlling vast amounts of illicit profits, can purchase levels of control and seeming stability sufficient to insulate themselves from anything less than a protracted, major eradication effort—a “drug war,” and the like.
In such circumstances, “East-West” or “North-South” distinctions cease to be relevant. The brokers of power control the production of commodities, limit or control access to and release of information, limit or control autonomy of workforce and dependents. The “included” abide by these controls, or cease to be included—or cease to be. The “other” becomes anyone not included, but not directly confronting or combating the existing rule—collateral bystanders, non-purchasers, non-prosecutors. The “enemy” becomes anyone challenging the status quo, confronting the existing system, searching for and combating the source of the pseudo-social network, the crim-ocracy of the moment—be it founded on drug consumption, fuel consumption, knowledge/information control, monetary/value-based power control, or, in a less friendly future on an increasingly crowded, inter-dependent planet, health- , food-, or water-, or air- consumption/control.
And such a “shadow” system, reliant on pressure-points and choke-holds of power and control, cannot emerge to the clarity/transparency/accountability of “open” systems of governance without establishing alternate social supports. That is, again, without safe, secure, stable and sustainable systems of economy, education, energy, environment, existence (food/water/air/health security), and ethical foundations responsive to, and accountable to, the population(s) a social system serves, there can be no non-coercive construct of governance. Without the willing participation of generations of citizens, a social system must either survive in a negative-valent/force status, or evolve to become a responsive/inclusive/responsible and sustainable society, and sustainable existence on this multi-species (humans are one among millions of species of earthlings) on this planet.
I would also like to pose a question for the forum on the resilience of bees, other pollinators, and beneficial insects--
while seed banks are useful, if our honey-producing bees, pollinators and beneficial insects are evolving along with the diverse and dynamic plant life and landrace seed crops adapting to survive outside the stasis of seed storage centers, what tests or verifications are being conducted to ensure that pollinators and beneficials will recognize, and possess digestive systems and processing enzymes necessary to make honey from these "seed bank" plants if they are returned to the biosphere after some decades of separation? Will a plant-generation or two of overcross with landrace crops be necessary for compatibility with then-current insect species?
Meanwhile, for health in the present, since some studies suggest as much as 75 percent of global seed diversity in staple food crops is held and actively used by small farmholders (many of them women) in peri-urban and remote rural locations, costs and deleterious effects of toxic chemicals used to control crop infestations may be avoided by bordering arable lands with early-season and late-season blooming plants, clumping grasses, and pollinator-friendly herb and medicinal plants can provide pollen (protein/food), nectar (carbohydrate/energy) and shelter not only for bees, but for lady bugs, lacewings, beneficial wasps, and other insects which are natural predators to insects which eat (or lay eggs/form larvae which eat) farm crops. Pairing tansy, marigold, basil, mountain mint, hyssop, borage, or other widely available varietals with garden crops can provide ample sustenance for bees and beneficials, enable predictable honey production (i.e., specific plant/source flavors, or safe gathering zones with ample water and plentiful pollinating plants throughout the growing season), and help make garden-food-production more secure, especially for small-holder farmers.
Additionally, farmers can gather and dry or process herbs, aromatics and floral border plants for use and sale at the end of the growing season.