Developing country food systems have changed dramatically since the Green Revolution period. At the same time, malnutrition still represents a challenge and is now understood to encompass the three simultaneous dimensions of undernourishment, micronutrient deficiencies, and over-nutrition manifest in overweight and obesity. These changes in food systems and in the understanding of the global malnutrition challenge necessitate fresh thinking about food systems-based strategies to reduce malnutrition. This paper introduces a special section that offers such new perspectives. We discuss trends with respect to indicators of the triple burden of malnutrition to understand the extent of global malnutrition challenges and then relate those to food systems transformation in developing countries.
a Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801, USA
b Department of Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801, USA
c Agricultural Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy
d Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801, USA
e Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy
Brief based on the online discussion, held from 4 to 26 February 2013, facilitated by FAO’s Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum) with FAO’s Forestry Department in the context of the International Conference on Forests for Food Security and Nutrition.
Insects are often considered a nuisance to human beings and mere pests for crops and animals. Yet this is far from the truth. Insects provide food at low environmental cost, contribute positively to livelihoods, and play a fundamental role in nature. However, these benefits are largely unknown to the public. Contrary to popular belief, insects are not merely “famine foods” eaten in times of food scarcity or when purchasing and harvesting “conventional foods” becomes difficult; many people around the world eat insects out of choice, largely because of the palatability of the insects and their established place in local food cultures.
Arnold van Huis, Joost Van Itterbeeck, Harmke Klunder, Esther Mertens, Afton Halloran,Giulia Muir, and Paul Vantomme
Pakistan has great potential in agriculture. About 27 percent of the total 79.6 million hectares of the country is under cultivation. Agriculture contributes about 24 percent of the GDP and employs 47 percent of the labour force. Most subsectors of agriculture have either remained static or have declined during the last three decades, with the exception of livestock. Therefore, there is considerable scope for improvement in production and in the processing of primary output. The World Bank, working in partnership with local and international collaborators, including the Investment Centre of FAO, has identified key areas that require priority interventions if the agricultural sector is to address the challenges of rural poverty, and maximize its contribution to export growth and national development. These areas are:
• Agricultural research and extension
• The seed sector
• Water resources
• Rural finance
This document outlines in detail the rationale for an intervention as well as the possible investment areas to support the Government of Pakistan in each subsector. Potential interventions that the Bank could champion are summarized below for each of these areas. The Bank appreciates that it is important that it work closely with all relevant stakeholders, and in particular, the National Agriculture Forum, in addressing the bottlenecks that are impairing the growth prospects of Pakistan’s agricultural sector.