Continued population growth, urbanization and rising incomes are likely to continue to put pressure on food demand. International prices for most agricultural commodities are set to remain at 2010 levels or higher, at least for the next decade (OECD-FAO, 2010). Small-scale producers in many developing countries were not able to reap the benefits of high food prices during the 2007-2008 food price crises. Yet, this upward food price trend could have been an opportunity for them to increase their incomes and food security. The opportunity that high food prices could have provided as a pathway out of poverty for small producers was not realized.
Evidence from the ground shows that when strong rural organizations such as producer groups and cooperatives provide a full range of services to small producers, they are able to play a greater role in meeting a growing food demand on local, national and international markets. Indeed, a myriad of such institutional innovations from around the world are documented in this FAO case-study-based publication. Nevertheless, to be able to provide a broad array of services to their members, organizations have to develop a dense network of relationships among small producers, between small-producer organizations and with markets actors and policy-makers.
S. S. Shirahatti, M. S. Badiger, K. V. Prakash The woman does the most tedious and back-breaking tasks in agriculture, animal husbandry and homes. The research efforts at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) institutes have tried to relieve her of the drudgery by providing time and labour saving tools such as improved weeders, winnowers, threshers, paddy transplanters. The interventions were also provided in the areas of nutritional security, dryland and irrigated agricultural technology etc. Vocational trainings are also being conducted to impart skills to undertake different vocations. In extension activities, the woman is now the centre point and activities are being planned keeping her in view. Women are involved in various activities related to agricultural and allied enterprises and some of these activities are found to have profound health risks on women. In such situation, introduction of agricultural implements has been proved effective in relieving drudgery. Present paper is such an effort to analyse studies conducted by various ICAR institutes in improving efficiency and boosting agricultural production through agricultural engineering interventions.
The concept of the 'nutrition transition' is widely used to explain the recent, rapid rise in overweight and obesity, and the co-existence of under- and over-nutrition, in low-income populations in 'middle-income' developing countries. This article provides an overview of the changes occurring in diets, physical activity, and nutritional status among children and adults in nutrition transition settings, explores the impact of these changes by gender, and discusses the long-term individual and social repercussions of such changes. It concludes by framing important questions for development practice and policy in nutrition transition settings through a gendered lens.
Solomon Asfaw, Bekele Shiferaw, Franklin Simtowe and Messia Hagos This article examines the driving forces behind farmers’ decisions to adopt agricultural technologies and the causal impact of adoption on farmers’ integration into output market using data obtained from a random cross-section sample of 700 farmers in Ethiopia. We estimate a Double-Hurdle model to analyze the determinants of the intensity of technology adoption conditional on overcoming seed access constraints. We estimate the impact of technology adoption on farmers’ integration into output market by utilizing treatment effect model, regression based on propensity score as well as matching techniques to account for heterogeneity in the adoption decision, and for unobservable characteristics of farmers and their farm. Results show that knowledge of existing varieties, perception about the attributes of improved varieties, household wealth (livestock and land) and availability of active labor force are major determinants for adoption of improved technologies. Our results suggest that the adoption of improved agricultural technologies has a significant positive impact on farmers’ integration into output market and the findings are consistent across the three models suggesting the robustness of the results. This confirms the potential direct role of technology adoption on market participation among rural households, as higher productivity from improved technology translates into higher output market integration.