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Topic: Measurement / Assessment

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Evaluation of Crop Production Systems Based on Locally Available Biological Inputs

Crop production systems that require chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery for
tillage, and irrigation water are expensive. In countries such as India, they have started
to undermine the water security of future generations, contributing to soil and water
pollution particularly when synthetic pesticides are not used properly. It is true that
agriculture as practiced 100 years ago without modern inputs had lower productivity
than present systems of production. However, many premodern practices, such as the
use of organic manures to enhance soil fertility and of herbal extracts to protect crops,
can be made more efficient by the scientific knowledge that has been gained over
the past century, making crop production more sustainable while still achieving high
productivity.

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Analysis of Household Food Security in Dodoma Municipality: Planned and Unplanned Settlements Comparison

This paper analyses food security status in planned and unplanned settlements using Dodoma municipality in Tanzania as case study. Data for the study were collected from a total of 97 households through interviews using structured questionnaire. Both purposive and simple random sampling procedures were used as criteria for sample selection. Ordinary Least Regression Model was used to ascertain social and economic factors significantly influencing food security among households living in planned and unplanned settlements. Estimation was carried out using LIMDEP soft ware. The findings of the study revealed that households living in unplanned settlement are food insecure compared to their counterparts living in planned settlements. The authors concludes that this were partly due to the fact that food availability, food accessibility and nutritional aspects were relatively better in planned settlement than their counterparts in unplanned settlement; and that the situation was partly due to low purchasing power, lack of employment and lack of credits. They finally recommend that there should be improvement of purchasing power; provision of credits; provision of food assistance to vulnerable households; and promotion of diversification of economic activities.

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Rapid Appraisal methods for the assessments, design, and evaluation of food security programs

Project managers in charge of implementing activities that address food security problems need tools to (1) identify the populations that are food insecure, (2) design interventions that address the causes of food insecurity, and (3) evaluate the impact of their interventions on the food security status of project beneficiaries. This guide illustrates how Rapid Appraisal (RA) methods can provide useful insights to the research and design of food security interventions, as well as their limitations. The degree of precision required, the characteristics of the population being investigated, the ability of fieldworkers, all of these and other aspects determine whether RA methods are appropriate in any given case. The first section of this paper presents general considerations on the advantages and disadvantages of RA methods over survey-based methods. The second section presents a set of RA tools that were tested in the field to fulfill the objectives stated above. The tools developed include community mapping, household food security ranking, conceptual mapping of food sources, seasonal food security time lines, and evaluation of intervention’s impact on food security. Each instrument is presented in a similar sequence: first, a brief introduction presents the instrument and its relevance to the study of food security; second, the tool is described in terms of its specific objectives, format, methods, and products expected. Third, examples from fieldwork experimentations are provided to illustrate its use. Additional information and key references on the procedure are added in appendixes to the