1. What are the lessons learned from PES in developed and developing countries?
We have a lot of PES projects being developed in Brazil and it became a trend over here. Most of them are related to water, carbon and biodiversity. From my experience in this projects I can enumerate some challenges which those initiatives are meeting and trying to overcome:
2. PES can be conceived as a diverse set of policies, institutions and processes that mobilize funding from direct beneficiaries, taxpayers, consumers and other interested parties to reward/remunerate/pay providers of environmental services. Which type of PES-related policy instruments would you recommend for your own particular country and why?
In Brazil there is a Law Project to regulate the PES policies, but it is “locked” in the congress for 7 years already. At the same time, we figure many types of PES schemes, adopting several solutions and methodologies, trying to fit the local reality and financial support available. Projects are developed by NGOs, municipalities, state governments, companies, and are paying totally different amounts (many times for the same services).
Despite recognizing the importance of adopting methodologies adequated to the local reality, I wonder if the results and impact of them would not reach higher proportion if following a “model” or unique strategy.
In fact there is a initiative from ANA (Water National Agency) called “Produtor de Água” that stimulates the development of PES projects and gives technical assistance to it. Anyway, the “PES trend” is making many initiatives emerge, sometimes without enough prepare and assistance.
In São Paulo, the Environmental Secretary tried for years to develop an incentive program to the municipalities create PES projects to protect water springs. But it didn´t work. Now the idea is to give farmers who intend to get adequated to the Forest Code, all the tools to do it: fences, seedlings. Instead of paying them.
3. What should be the role of innovation and entrepreneurship in making PES work for sustainable development?
In some places, where there are a great number of small properties, focus on individual farmers is the only way to reach conservation of relevant areas, where there is potential and necessity of environmental services providing. Those areas are populated and you can not just remove the population. You have to give them ways to provide these services. PES is one of the possibilities.
Links and resources:
RPE/PES in the Agricultural and Food Sectors
Payment for Ecosystem Services and Food Security
Paying farmers for environmental services
FAO website on PES
Payments for environmental services - What role in sustainable agricultural development?
Climate Change Mitigation Finance for Smallholder Agriculture
Payment Schemes for Environmental Services in Watersheds
The new generation of watershed management programmes and projects
FAO's activities on watershed management and mountains