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Quel est le rôle des relations sociales et de leurs réseaux dans la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition des ménages?

Ma capacité d’accéder à et de consommer des aliments nutritifs est, dans une certaine mesure, le r Ma capacité d’accéder et de consommer des aliments nutritifs est, dans une certaine mesure, le résultat de mon appartenance et de mes relations avec d’autres membres de la société : en tant que fille, sœur, mère, belle-fille, tante, cousine, petite-fille, sociologue du développement, employée, propriétaire terrienne, étudiante et citoyenne. Je peux obtenir des aliments nutritifs de toutes mes relations, tous mes réseaux et sur les marchés à travers le don, l’échange, le prêt ou l’achat. Mon cas est semblable à ceux de beaucoup d’autres personnes, et à la fois différent. Que s'est-il passé pour que les individus et les ménages ne puissent plus compter sur leur appartenance à une société lorsqu'ils ont besoin d'aide ? Cette discussion va se centrer sur le rôle des relations et des réseaux sociaux dans la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition afin de détecter et d'analyser les cas de succès, les enjeux et la voie à suivre pour parvenir à la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle.

Je m'appelle Eileen Omosa, je suis étudiante de l'Université d’Alberta, et j'écris actuellement un mémoire sur « les facteurs qui ont une incidence sur la prise de décision des ménages quant au choix de la propriété foncière au Kenya ». Je travaille également comme analyste de recherche sur un projet d'étude sur les choix alimentaires durant la période périnatale. Avant de reprendre des études de perfectionnement, j'ai passé plus de dix ans à travailler et à étudier les sphères thématiques de la propriété foncière, la foresterie et la sécurité alimentaire, les relations de genre, les réseaux transfrontaliers de collaboration et la gestion des conflits basés sur les ressources naturelles, au sein de communautés rurales du Kenya et dans la région de l'Afrique australe et de l'Est. Un des principaux enseignements que j'ai pu tirer de mon travail avec les petits exploitants ruraux est que le niveau d'attachement d'un individu à sa communauté détermine dans une certaine mesure son niveau de bien-être économique, et que les individus et les ménages les moins attachés à la communauté tendent à s'orienter vers une production agricole intensive, ou à avoir recours au marché pour satisfaire leurs besoins en matière de sécurité alimentaire et de nutrition. Faut-il opter pour une chose ou pour l'autre, à savoir de fortes relations sociales ou le marché ?

J'ai grandi dans les zones rurales du Kenya et ma famille avait accès à la terre sur lesquelles nous cultivions différentes denrées alimentaires comme le maïs et les bananes, des légumes et des fruits, et où nous élevions des vaches et des chèvres. Toutefois, notre famille manquait d’autres produits alimentaires comme le poisson, le millet, les pommes de terre, le manioc et l’arachide que nous apportaient d'autres membres de la famille (comme dons, prêts, par échange) ou de tribus voisines moyennant le troc ou l’achat (http://www.eileenomosa.com/myths-on-my-food1/2013/7/28/toothless-yet-the-community-feeds-them-on-fish-beans-nuts). D’autres sources d’aliments allaient au-delà des liens familiaux et amicaux et incluaient des groupes considérés traditionnellement des tribus « ennemies ». Les rapports avec ces groupes étaient établis  par le biais de mariages ou d'accords de paix dans le seul but d'accéder à des aliments qui n'étaient produits que dans ces communautés. L'exemple le plus pratique de ce type de relations avec des tiers ou avec des amis est celui du prêt ou du don de bétail aux ménages qui n'avaient pas les moyens d'acheter une vache ou du lait et qui pourtant avaient des nourrissons et des enfants en bas âge pour qui le lait était un élément nutritionnel essentiel. Dans ce cas, les ménages qui possèdent plus de bétail (comme mes parents qui ont effectivement donné des vaches à des familles dans le besoin) donnent une vache laitière à la famille en question (gosagaria, terme qui n'a pas de traduction) à la condition que la famille bénéficiaire prenne soin de l'animal (le nourrisse et lui assure de bonnes conditions physiques et médicales) et puisse en échange consommer le lait produit par celui-ci. L'accord est que la vache et toute sa progéniture continuent d'appartenir à la famille donatrice et doivent être rendues à cette dernière dans un délai fixé au préalable ou sur demande. Pour pouvoir conserver la vache, la famille bénéficiaire s'efforce d'entretenir de bonnes relations avec la famille donatrice. Pour sa part, la famille donatrice traite la famille bénéficiaire de façon respectueuse, car, tout comme d'autres membres de la famille, des amis ou des voisins, celle-ci pourrait avoir un produit unique, comme des légumes, ou une compétence particulière, qu'elle pourrait offrir. Ces bonnes actions sont censées apporter la bonne fortune à la famille donatrice en lui donnant santé ou richesse.

C'est pourquoi nous souhaitons aborder, dans nos discussions, le rôle important que peuvent jouer les relations et réseaux sociaux (formels et informels) pour garantir la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition à l'échelon des ménages. Les discussions peuvent s'articuler autour des questions suivantes :

  1. Comment percevez-vous les relations et réseaux sociaux dans le cadre de la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle et connaissez-vous des exemples du rôle qu'ils peuvent jouer dans la réalisation de la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle ?
  2. Quels peuvent être les défis qui vont se poser dans les relations et les réseaux sociaux en matière de sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle ?
  3. Exemples positifs de relations et de réseaux sociaux qui se sont adaptés à nos environnements changeants.
  4. Quels rôles la société civile, le secteur privé et les gouvernements peuvent-ils jouer pour renforcer l'utilisation des relations et des réseaux sociaux aux fins de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition ?

Eileen Omosa

Cette discussion est fermée. Contactez fsn-moderator@fao.org pour tous renseignements.

UGAgri Group7 University of Guyana, Guyana
23.10.2013
UGAgri

The role that social relations and networks play in achieving food and nutritional security has to do with a number of things, the least of which is trust. You could say that trust is the overriding value that stands constant when this role is by turns, added to and diminished by factors such as the preservation of food in traditions and cultures on one hand, and increasing urbanization on the other.

The moderator asked, “What has changed so that individuals and households are no longer able to rely on their membership in society for assistance in times of need?” It’s almost reflexive to say urbanization. But not urbanization exactly, more like what urbanization represents: Less reliance on local markets supplied by family-based farmers who you probably would've known if you were living in a rural area. Much smaller families so there's less of an extended family effect in the sharing of household tasks and the passing down of traditions. And then there's the economic situation: living in a city is wholly different from the rural scene of farms and kitchen gardens. Supermarket and town markets are substituted for homegrown because the (opportunity) cost of self-sufficiency in the city is way too high. The million dollar question is: does this mean that, as an urban dweller, you cannot rely on family and community networks to provide or supplement your food needs anymore? Here’s what our group member, Liza, says about moving from a rural island to the city, and what she has experienced in the transition that’s affected her ability to access food.

“Wakenaam is a rural island in Guyana with a population of approximately 10,000. In Wakenaam, almost every other house has a kitchen garden which is enough to feed the entire island. There are social relations and networking among Wakenaam villagers which sustains the island food-wise. Families with their produces will either sell some of their produce, barter with others who have different produces or give to poor persons of society, thus no one is left to starve or hungry. Also if someone doesn’t have the money to purchase the vegetable, the family farmers will give them credit until they can pay for it. Everyone will have access to fresh vegetables that are nutritious.   

“However, in the urban, almost city area where I moved to, I don’t even know who my neighbors are. Everything I consume comes from supermarkets, where foods stuffs are already clean and packaged. If I don’t have the money to purchase food stuffs, I will surely starve. No credit is given to you in the city. It’s been my observation that there are far more hungry people in the city. Though I visit my family in Wakenaam only every few months, maybe twice in 3 months, I always bring back food, mostly fruits which are very expensive at local markets where I live in the city. I cook most of what I eat and share with my sister and roommate; we don’t share food with friends in the city, and we don’t have any family close by so any immediate secondary source of food is not an option."

                In another post, another group member will describe her experiences in travelling weekly between her apartment nearby the university and her home some 65 miles and two hours away. Liza’s statement, however, show clearly how trust, or the lack of it, colours the social interactions between people. People in rural areas take it for granted until it can’t be easily shared in an urban setting. 

Raymond Enoch NAAHM, Nigeria
22.10.2013

Dear All

the discussion on the role of social relations and networks in household food security and nutrition is critical if we are to move forward.

The social relations and networks are no doubt elements and instrument of education, information sharing of best practices and vehicle to drive policy options. It is in this context that I join the discussion.

I will be making a more in-depth contributions on this

Raymond Enoch

NAAHM Nigeria and Chair West Africa

Pia Pacheco Argentina
21.10.2013
Pia

Gracias Eileen por empezar este interesante debate. Estoy de acuerdo en que las relaciones sociales, las redes que un individuo, familia o comunidad pueden crear y sostener son fundamentales para garantizar su seguridad alimentaria. Yo quiero hablar de las relaciones extracomunitarias y distantes de la localidad que  influyen en las redes locales.

Vivo en la capital de mi país pero he recorrido y trabajado con muchas comunidades indígenas distantes y aisladas. Muchas de estas comunidades viven en situaciones de extrema pobreza y son víctimas de discriminación. En los últimos años la frontera agrícola y petrolera ha avanzado sobre los territorios de uso de las comunidades indígenas (territorios de marisca, caza, pesca, recolección), afectando brutalmente sus medios de vida.

Algunos referentes de estas comunidades lograron salir de sus provincias y hacer contacto directo con instituciones a nivel nacional, logrando que algunos agentes/funcionarios visiten sus comunidades, se enteren de su realidad y logrando de algun modo un compromiso de gestión.

En momentos de crisis estas relaciones  cumplen un rol  importante. La mayoría de los referentes tienen un teléfono celular y es a través de mensajes tales como: "llamame" , "nos desalojan", hay "desmonte", etc. que consiguen llamar la atención a nivel central del gobierno federal y evitar la discriminación o invisibilización que sufren en las localidades. De esta manera están luchando para conservar sus territorios de uso y consiguiendo ayuda para garantizar su seguridad alimentaria a través de proyectos con instituciones estatales y también con donaciones particulares de semillas, herramientas de labranza y mercaderías.

Dr. Claudio Schuftan PHM, Viet Nam
18.10.2013
Claudio

1.  When we talk about HH FS, we too often forget HH fuel security and the issues of its physical and economic access and an issue of tremendous environmental consequences (firewood, charcoal).

2. More related to social relations and networks is what all online discussions so far have omitted. I refer to the 'care' element in the causality of malnutrition. It cannot be overemphasized that MN is an outcome of a pyramid of causation (UNICEF 1990). Three are the underlying causes, namely HH FS, care and access to health and sanitation. Addressing FS is necessary but not sufficient to influence the outcome!.  Well, care relates to the the mother's wellbeing during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to the mother/child binomium; and breastfeeding (the first food) is at the very center with much more than its nutritional importance including all aspects of bonding: and that is related to social networks [family support (husband and extended family), lactation legislation (maternity leave and creches)]. Networks are also involved, especially existing networks of women promoting breastfeeeding (WABA, La Leche League, etc). Issues of alleviating the mother's chores during pregnancy and lactation should also be kept in mind; the role of the husband being crucial.

Bottom line, these issues are key to HH FS and are clearly some of its important determinants.

Best

Claudio

17.10.2013
University of Guyana

Greetings to all readers and the moderator.
 

This is an interesting topic to observe as, it is one in which at the micro level, shifts in behavioural patterns can alter the brute reality of poverty and hunger.
The issue for examination (and probably the success of such a concept) however necessarily hinges upon the area in society with which we are making the observation. 

It can largely be agreed upon that there are three general categories of society with respect to geographical composition- urban, sub-urban and rural provinces. As the adage indicates, 'The poor will always be with us' and therein, we premise that in each of these categories of society, there will exist some poverty and its consequential implications (honing in on hunger in this case.) It can also generally be assumed, to a large degree of certainity, that the lifestyles of each of these provinces will be different. We will observe their lifestyles in relation to time available, population density, stress levels, health and community relations.

Generally the succeeding are the overview of each province and their corresponding lifestyle:

  1. Urban Province
    Extremely Busy Lifestyle, High Population Density, High Stress Levels, Poor/Ailing Health, Minimal Relations with Neighbours
  2. Sub-Urban Province
    Average Lifestyle, Moderate Population Density, Average Stress Levels, Moderate to Very Healthy, Good Relations with Neighbours
  3. Rural Province
    Sendentary to Relaxed Lifestyle, Low Population Density, Low to Average Stress Levels, Moderate to Very Healthy, Strong Relations with Neighbours

Herein, we find it necessary to observe the effect/anticipated outcome of the concept relative to each province given their lifestyle differences.

Rural Province
Dependence upon a concept of this nature, in our opinion, would be successful in a rural province, given the nature of the lifestyle. In the preamble that was given, it was even mentioned that this act of gratitude occurred in rural Kenya. (Contention with this example will be expounded on in subsequent posts) Given the strong relations with neighbours and deeper sense of community bonding, the rural provinces would stand the best chance of success.

Sub-Urban Province
Given the nature of the 'Suburb' area, poverty levels are usually low. With the good community relations that exist in these areas, once a group/organization comprising of community members is established, it is anticipated that an alleviation of hunger should occur.

Urban Province
This is where the drawback of this concept would exhibit itself the most and it is the area that should cause the largest degree of worry given the very nature of the lifestyle. Inflating that fact is the antagonizing phenomenon of 'Poverty Urbanization', where more than 50M persons have internally migrated to urban areas and the rate of poverty urbanization exceeds the rate of urbanization. (Finance & Development Magazine September 2007, Volume 44, Number 3- Released by IMF)
 

It is therefore not to be taken for granted when dealing with the concept that success and implementation would result in alleviation in every province. We will detail each province and its specific implications relative to questions posited, in subsequent posts. We ardently anticipate fruitful discussions.

 

 

 

Mr. Subhash Mehta Devarao Shivaram Trust, India
15.10.2013
Subhash

‘Make agriculture truly sustainable now for food security in a changing climate’

UN agencies have taken the initiative over the last 5 years to support holistic solutions for the long term sustainability of over 2 billion hungry, malnourished, poor, deep in debt rural producer communities, with UNCTAD’s TER of September 18, 2013, taking the ARES, World Bank, etc., head on, urging for a 'Paradigm shift in agriculture' IAR4D needs attached and for us to 'Wake up before it is too late', read TER at:

http://unctad.org/en/pages/PublicationWebflyer.aspx?publicationid=666,

HISTORY:

Communities followed integrated agriculture system of their area to produce nutritious food for their own needs and at little or no cost, before the arrival of their colonial rulers, For serving their political and commercial interests, farms were converted to produce mono crops importing high cost agro chemical inputs, converting more and more land for commercial crops like cotton, tea, coffee, jute, rubber, sugarcane, etc., reducing the land for production of nutritious food by the smallholder producer communities for their own/ country needs. Policies, rules and regulations focused on commercial mono crops,, resulting in the decrease of purchasing power, taxing rural producers, increasing cost of production, resulting  in the decrease of farm produce prices and or producers’ net incomes. The resulting decrease in smallholder farm production and  availability of nutritious food, lead to hunger, malnutrition, debt, poverty, scarcity and famine like conditions from time to time especially during the world wars and after independence (early 1960 in India).

After many countries became independent from colonial rule, large sums of money were made available as aid for development of agriculture by the erstwhile colonial powers as well as the USA, with subtle conditions attached, eg.,  USAID made provisions to give grants for scientists’  advance studies in the land grant universities of the USA, where the curricula focused on mechanized industrial green revolution (GR) technologies (most farms being over 100 hectares), training them as specialists, with little or no knowledge about the integrated low cost agriculture of different  areas in their country and sustainable in the long term for the smallholder producers. Most on return, made the agriculture policies of their country, continued to serve the commercial interest of the North (Europe/ USA/ Canada/ Australia), implemented their industrial agriculture models, using AID funds, ensuring continuation of their commercial interests (mono crops), primarily to keep down the world prices of agricultural commodities, like rice, wheat, maize, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, etc, loosing focus on producing nutritious food, following the low cost integrated agriculture and management practices (GAP), etc., essential for meeting their own safe and nutritious food needs and the long term sustainability of the producer communities and markets in the vicinity.

The continuing focus on commercial crops lead to shortages, scarcity and famine like conditions in the sixties, creating a panic among policy makers [mostly scientists staffing agriculture research & education systems (ARES), most Central and State Government covering agriculture departments, mostly specialists, opening the flood gates for  GR  technologies being forced on all farmers, as part of official extension programmes and schemes (subsidies) of the Government, especially in the irrigated areas of the country. The use of agro chemicals on rich soils built over centuries, did increase productivity for a while, temporarily solving the immediate problem of shortages by meeting supply side but ignoring the demand side of producers’ access to required knowledge and management to produce nutritious food needs of the rural producer communities/ contry.

However, in about ten years there was enough evidence documented that the GR productivity had plateau and decreasing in most areas, requiring increasing quantities and higher prices for fertilizer, seed and water each year. Added to this was the global oil crisis since the 70’s, resulting in the huge increase in the costs of fossil fuel imports, transportation, production of agro chemicals, etc., making conventional farming unviable and forcing governments to subsidies production of external inputs. In spite of subsidies, the purchasing power (mono crops) and net incomes of farmers, especially smallholder producer communities reduced each year (often below cost of production) resulting in rural hunger, malnutrition, poverty, suicides and climate change.

13.10.2013
Bronwen
If you are not already familiar with Foods of Association: Biocultural Perspectives on Foods and Beverages that Mediate Sociability by Nina Etkin I encourage you to read it, you may find her work in West Africa interesting as a comparison to your work in Kenya. Others interested in this topic may find it of interest as well, and it is easy to read.

Kazi njema,

Bronwen

 

Pamela Pozarny FAO, Italy
10.10.2013
Pamela

This is an important topic and regretfully undervalued to date, in understanding actual socioeconomic dyanamics at community level and how these can promote and foster improved household resilience, food security and nutrition, and overall livelihoods. Social scientists among the range of experts working in rural development-food security sectors have typically appreciated the power and vitality of social relations in rural communities (I am particularly thinking about Africa based on my own experiences), including how they are often (overlooked) determining factors in reaching (and also inhibiting) targeted, envisaged outcomes and impacts of supporting policies/programmes/projects. Building on those positive existing social, usually customary and traditional-based practices to contribute to and reinforce development objectives is advised and we should advocate for greater analysis, understanding and incorporation of these sometimes complex inter-relations into our policy and programme design and implementation work. This analysis is particularly relevant to promoting inclusion and equitable access to resources and assets provided to households/communities, for example through government programmes, as it propvides greater understanding of "how" households actually use, allocate, share or retain benefits.

I wish to provide as one example among others which we are working on in FAO under the from Protection to Production (PtoP) project, which is an impact evaluation using a mixed methods approach to understanding impacts, and economic impacts more specifically, of cash transfer programmes in SSA at the household, community levels, and on social networks in particular. I believe our qualitative findings from analysis of the Ghana Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) cash transfer demonstrate best the role of social networks in rural communities (italics my own):

"Despite high poverty levels and livelihood insecurity, the fieldwork confirmed a reasonably high level of contribution-based social networking in poor rural areas. These networks were often fragile, however. A lack of trust to pay fees and the necessary dues for these groups was one reason why groups might dissolve and then reform. For the potentially vulnerable in general, and for the LEAP beneficiaries in particular, it was very important to spread risk by trying to maintain links with social networks, with the most important risk-sharing network being the extended family. Beyond its impact on beneficiary self esteem and hope, the LEAP transfer enabled beneficiaries to enter, or ‘re-enter’, existing contribution-based social and socio-economic networks."

And further,

"Crucially, the introduction of LEAP had enabled many beneficiary households to ‘re-enter’ their extended family network, helping them to move from isolation and vulnerability to inclusion and risk sharing. In some instances beneficiaries had even been able to turn provider, loaning to other family members in trouble. In the Fante society of the Central Region, the LEAP transfer enabled beneficiaries to contribute to extended family networks through the ‘family levy’ (abusua to). This contribution is mainly for risk sharing around burial and funeral party costs. This is an ad hoc contribution so the LEAP transfer enabled beneficiaries to keep money aside for this expenditure. One beneficiary in Agona Abrim, Central Region, explained how even before LEAP she would still pay her family levy using family remittances. If you stopped contributing then, ‘if you die you will be buried without a coffin’. The importance of a decent burial in Fante society cannot be overstated: ‘People pay more respect to your coffin than when you are alive’. Extended family members, knowing that the LEAP contribution eases the burden of their support, were now more likely to provide support to beneficiaries. Beneficiaries in Agona Abrim ironically noted this change of position that financial contribution brings: ‘Now when someone dies, they say "come come"!"

As demonstrated, social networks in rural communities in Ghana serve as a safety net in themselves (e.g. food, cash) and an avenue towards increasing inclusion, participation, voice and engaments among all  members of the community, including the most vulnerable. Ghana and other completed studies from countries covered under the project can be found on the PtoP website: http://www.fao.org/economic/PtoP/en/.

Please find a link to the Ghana research brief and to the full report.  

George Kent Department of Political Science, University of Hawai'i, États-Unis d'Amérique
10.10.2013
George

Greetings –

I would like to express my deep gratitude to Eileen Omosa for opening this discussion of the role of social relations in establishing food security. I think the quality of the community in which individuals and families are embedded can have a big impact on food security, especially for people with low incomes.

Historically, there was a long period when cash income was of little importance. People lived close to the earth, and close to their communities. As Karl Polanyi pointed out, in what we sometimes describe as “primitive” communities, no one went hungry unless everyone was going hungry. That pattern continues today, in what some describe as “pre-modern” communities.

In recent work on this issue (current draft available at http://www2.hawaii.edu/~kent/EndingHungerLocally.docx and also attached here) I highlight the importance of caring and social support systems not only in reducing hunger where it exists, but also in preventing it from ever happening. My observations are summarized in three major points:

  • Hunger is less likely to occur where people care about one another’s well being.
  • Caring behavior is strengthened when people work and play together in pursuing values they share.
  • Therefore, hunger in any community is likely to be reduced by encouraging its people to work and play together, especially in food-related activities.

There is little likelihood that the hunger problem can be solved through market activities based on narrow self-interest. Caring is essential. It must be recognized and nurtured.

Aloha, George Kent

See the attachment:EndingHungerLocally.docx