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Eggs production has to be understanding with its ecological impact on ecosystem.
Three main product are produced, meat, manures (including feather), bones and eggshell. Production of eggs could also include protection against insect and little snakes.
On the other side quality of Eggs production is also a matter of grass, grain and water and veterinary constraint.
And finally to sell eggs you need to have good roads.
Eggs are easy to conserve for one month.
So egg production must be sustainable. This include selection and conservation of the best adapted variety of poultry, Adapting production to seasonal variation; and reusing all the by-products (bones, shell, feather, manures) with the best techniques (biochar etc..) and disposal of centre to manage eggs transportation and selling.
Producing poultry is a matter of nursery and predators, producing eggs is a matter of henhouse and pest.
So if we stand on those different facts; egg production could be use under three way.
Economic if you can sell them easily
Nutritional if they are for self-consumption during the "period de soudure" in the sahelian zone for example
Agronomic if you consider all the by-products you can use for crops production including crop protection against insects.
Reasoning on egg production could be established on the needs of a family. Then you could extend your production depending on grain and grass availability with a top production corresponding to one or two month after harvesting and a progressive reduction of poultry production till conserving just the youngest and best animals for the family and beginning nursery just two month before the beginning of top production.
This is to my view the best ways to use eggs in the benefits of the farmer.
sorry, but as a little farmer in france in don't see any practical guidelines for investments in your document.
To implement food security there are for me three main principle given by the responsabilities of farmer to manage a common.
The first one is a security principle:
-implement grain storage capacity at the farm level to secure farmer food access and theire ability to control market risks
- invest on middle to long term production to protect the country side from climate change and provide energy supply (forest and water management)
- developp and identify potentially useful new crops and animals. this will help to continuously adapt crop production to climate change (biodiversity management) this include farmer formation in botanic and zoology at the village schools
The second one is based on ecological principle:
- manage the existing biodiversity to ensure that on a long term farmer could use this biodiversity for small scale business and benefit of fully efficient ecosystem services
- invest in short term technics like aquaponie and biochar that provide farmer with food and energy apart from seasonal fluctuations
- developp microclimate using ecoengeniring techniques to give the way to a larger amount of ecological niches including artificial ones
The third one is a socially based principle for farmer workforces
- invest in techniques that gives the farmer the possibilities to developp production with higher level of capital gain.those techniques would be between handwork and industry managed at the farm or the village level. Farmer could by this way benefit from higher prices issued from product transformation. In this techniques we could find aloso food conservation practices like freezing, lyphillisation or pasteurization.
- ensure that villager benefit from all the natural ressources including medicinal plant and that theire knowledge are well protected at the international level. This knowledge must also be transmitted from one generation to another including during school time.
- villagers as the first responsible for natural capital management must have the possibilities to edict particular laws for protecting theire commons. States, in that way, must provide the police or military forces necessary to reinforce the villagers decision.
Trees are the better way to preserve soil living organisms and manage microclimate that limit quick change in soil exposure to drought and sunlight or running water
But this take time. Depending on the local climate 15 years to 50 years are necessary to benefit of trees effect.
This is a long term investment. This investment must be done taking into account the direct needings of the people among two to three generation. At the moment forest oragroforestry could be conduct under different and opposite ways.
So I prefere first to ask What is the misuse of a forest or an agroforestry area? This is for me the key challenge, not misuse natural capital.
One concrete example was the presence of earthworm under old faidherbia tree on the top of a hill in burkina faso under minus 600mM annual rainfall. earthworms benefit of faidherbia impact on soil humidity and earthworm have theyre cast under the top soil layer. This is showing us that we have to understand the interaction between trees and soils animals. The quicker they came under tree protection the better it is for preserving soil fertility in some climate. The innovative approach is to enhanced this "symbiosis" wich depend also on roots biochemical byproduct, and to be able to maintain biological Corridor between young and elder trees. This is a whole world we have to learn to deal with.
Food securities policy have to include trees and soil living organism as a community that is growing until the tree is alive. This community is responsible of the supporting services of the ecosystem for a long term . It is the pillar of the ecosystem. Before cutting an old tree you have to garantee that all the inhabitants of this community could find a place after the destruction of the tree. If not, no cutting. That was the role of sacred forest we have to maintain this traditional behaviour.
1) If you were designing an agricultural investment programme, what are the top 5 things you would do to maximize its impact on nutrition?
- establish fruit and medicinal trees to ensure vitamines (dry or fresh) medics and biopesticdes avalability and manage simultaneously microclimate and organic matter for soils.
- develop hydroponics near houses to ensure the production of self made vegetables, medecinal plants and fishes without using a lot of water during the rainy season
- develop specifics fields (children fields) that ensure women to find what is needed for children during their weaning (companions planting of leguminous and cereal plant)
- enhance grain storage capacity and condition and test various germination process for introducing fresh sprouted grain inside the diet
- use of fruit dryer and fermentation process
2) To support the design and implementation of this programme, where would you like to see more research done, and why?
vertical cropping and aquaponie material, fermentation processing and solar sterilisation process,
Intensification is more easier to practice near houses where ashes and water fall could be controlled and stocked. Tropical countries didn't develop aquaculture with little native fishes species. Food storage are uneasy and specific process like fermentation or sterilisation could help
3) What can our institutions do to help country governments commit to action around your recommendations, and to help ensure implementation will be effective?
the design is biologically oriented. Ecology of terrestrial and freswater from natural and artifial ecosystem, fermentation and sterilization process in pottery, botany and zoology.
Your organization could help gouvernement
- to make easier the access to scientific publication for young scientist
- Promote self made technology and help individuals in that way
- help to widespread the technology or technics
- encourage recording of native knowledge and knowhow
-develop recycling of urban waste for agricultural use.