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What are the main approaches we collectively see as most important?
The main approaches are collectively as most important is: -
1 – Estimation a gap between productivity of the varieties under experimental research, demonstration fields and farmer conditions.
2 – The range of available suitable practical recommendations that can more effectively.
3 – The range of responses of farmers for these recommendations.
4 – The range of development recommendations with climatic exchange for over come of this exchange.
5 – Available suitable practical recommendations which easily application under farmers condition with law cost.
What are some practical recommendations that can more effectively promote, support, and guarantee the integration of nutrition into agriculture and food security investments?
Some practical recommendations that can more effectively promote, support, and guarantee the integration of nutrition into agriculture and food security investments: -
1 – Integrated pest and weed management by application more methods for over come pest and weeds control such as: -
A - Crops rotations. B - Seed bed preparation. C - Sowing resistance varieties.
D - Sowing recommendations numbers of plant/ unite area.
E - Application the recommendations fertilizer.
F - Sowing some crops have allelopathy effect on weeds in crop sequence with crop rotations.
G – Application technical recommendations pesticide or herbicide.
By followed integrated pest or weed control can be increased quality and quantity of productivity without environmental pollutions, for example: -
Effect of tillage systems sequence and some weed control treatments on some field crops
Two field experiments were conducted in clay soil at Sids Agricultural Research Station, to asses the role of tillage and weed control treatments on weed management through 2- year crop rotation in the period from 2003 to 2006. The first experiment was conducted to study the effect of three tillage systems i.e. to use mouldboard followed by rotary plow, chisel plow three passes followed by rotary plow and chisel plow two passes where these treatments were applied repeatedly every season through four summer and winter seasons in the same plot of every treatment three sub plots weed control treatments (pendimethalin, hand-hoeing and weed check) were distributed to study their effects on weeds and productivity of the different in the rotation. Results showed that increasing tillage by combining mouldboard or chisel plowing with rotary plowing decreased the total weeds biomass/m² by 29.2 and 38.5% and increased seed yield of faba bean by 12.7 and 10.3% than chisel plowing only in 2003/04 season and the respective values during 2004/05 season were 38.2 and 32.8% for weed biomass reduction and 25.8 and 3.2% for seed yield. Similar trends were obtained with the effect of tillage systems on weeds and yield of both maize and soybean. On the other hand , repeating tillage operations seasonally in faba bean decreased total weed biomass/m² by 34.0 , 17.6 and 24.5% in the third season compared to the first season with mouldboard rotary, chisel with rotary and chisel only in the same respective order. Pendimethalin or hand-hoeing resulted in significant decrease in the total weeds of all studied crops accompanied with significant increases in their yields.
The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of tillage systems on the control of orobanche management in faba bean. Similar trends were obtained emphasizing that increasing tillage operation by combining mouldboard rotary plowing or chisel plowing with rotary plowing succeeded in reducing orobanche biomass/m² by 23.3 and 18.2% in 2003/04 season and by 41.4 and 33.4% in second season compared to chisel plowing only and causing increases ranged from the 4.0 to 20.2% of faba bean yield. Imazapic or hand weeding show also significant control of orobanche accompanied withsignificant increase in faba bean yield productivity. The role of tillage on controlling weeds may be attributed to the role of rotary or mould plowing in burying great proportion of weed seeds including orobanche to depths preventing germination of such seeds. The effect of various possible integration between both tillage and weed control methods were discussed emphasizing the importance of this integration on weed management tactics in studied crops. Other effects of studied factors on weeds or yield components were also recorded.
2 – Increased the area sowing of food plants.
3 – Increased quality of food artificial.
What research is needed?
The research needed is: - The important research which concentration on breading and improvement traits high yields, resistance of pest and disease, parasitic weeds and climatic exchange. Integrated pest and weed control.
Mohammed Shams Mekky
Weed Research Central Laboratory - Agricultural Research Center
The main weed control practices available in Egypt is hand hoeing or hand weeding, often exercised in late period after seeding or planting. Generally, at least 20% of the crop yield is lost due to delaying of first weeding. Unfortunately, this problem is not always stressed in working with farmers. They should be made more aware of the need to keep fields weed-free early in the crop life cycle. Small farmers cannot afford the use of selective herbicide, but they are also ignorant of other ways to reduce weed infestations through the application of integrated weed management which include the use of preceding crops in rotation to smother weeds, adequate land preparation for the control of weeds, and intercropping to increase crop density and to suppress weed growth in crop areas. In addition, preventive measures for weed control are poorly practices. Un-cleaned crop seeds, irrigation water and untreated green manure contain huge amounts of weed seeds, which commonly brought into crop area and increase the level of weed infestations. This problem is more acute in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt for example.
Artemisia is a well-known medicinal plant that has been utilized for a number of purposes. The need to reduce chemical inputs into agricultural systems has renewed the interest to use of allelochemical produced by plants in the genus Artemisia (Marco and Barbera, 1990). Many researchers studied the allelopathic effect of crops on weeds have appeared recently such as Artemisia annua, Chen et al, 1991 showed that artemisinin an allelochemechical isolated from Artemisia annua, gave the same level of growth inhibition as 2,4-D and glyphosate in mung bean phaseolus. Lydon, et al (1997), Kil and Yun (1992), Yun and Kil (1992), Duke et al (1987) and Chen and Leather (1990) suggested that artemisinin had potential to be used as natural herbicide, due to the sesquiterpenoid lactone peroxide constituent which can be extracted from annual wormwood (Artemisia annua) where under laboratory and plant residues field studies caused significant inhibition in germination and decreased seedling elongation of receptor plants, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), common lambsquarters, soybean and corn, lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Wormwood extract I50 was estimated by 15 mg dry weight/ml for redroot pigweed Mekky (2008). Putnam and DeFrank (1979 and 1983) and White et al (1989) showed that the wee-suppressive activity of several cover crops has been attributed to the release of allelochemical.
The objectives of this investigation was to study the allelopathic effect of aqueous or wormwood extracts by natural white vinegar at 5% and 2.5% acetic acid concentrations on germination of maize as well as biological agent for suppressing species as wild oat, canary grass, dentated duck, redroot pigweed purslane and deccan grass as allelopathic recepters.