The concept of the 'nutrition transition' is widely used to explain the recent, rapid rise in overweight and obesity, and the co-existence of under- and over-nutrition, in low-income populations in 'middle-income' developing countries. This article provides an overview of the changes occurring in diets, physical activity, and nutritional status among children and adults in nutrition transition settings, explores the impact of these changes by gender, and discusses the long-term individual and social repercussions of such changes. It concludes by framing important questions for development practice and policy in nutrition transition settings through a gendered lens.
Food security is a strategic component for a nation’s competitiveness. Furthermore, food security can be viewed as a prerequisite for national security. Hence, the paper will focus more on discussing the strategic meaning of food security in moving toward food independence.
An old saying goes, “It’s not what you say, but how you say it, that matters.” Indeed, food security professionals increasingly realize that they must communicate their knowledge strategically for their work to have maximum impact. A comprehensive food security communications toolkit from FAO will help make sure “information leads to action” by offering tips on: • communicating strategically with policy makers – for maximum impact • dealing with the media and building good relationships with journalists • how to prepare a communication strategy • exploiting the internet, social media and Web 2.0 technologies to deliver your message and engage in dialogues with global audiences • writing policy briefs, early warning bulletins, needs assessment and research reports • improving your writing skills and editing your work TARGET AUDIENCE While aimed at professionals working in food security related fields, the lessons in this toolkit can easily be applied to many other fields.
Solomon Asfaw, Bekele Shiferaw, Franklin Simtowe and Messia Hagos This article examines the driving forces behind farmers’ decisions to adopt agricultural technologies and the causal impact of adoption on farmers’ integration into output market using data obtained from a random cross-section sample of 700 farmers in Ethiopia. We estimate a Double-Hurdle model to analyze the determinants of the intensity of technology adoption conditional on overcoming seed access constraints. We estimate the impact of technology adoption on farmers’ integration into output market by utilizing treatment effect model, regression based on propensity score as well as matching techniques to account for heterogeneity in the adoption decision, and for unobservable characteristics of farmers and their farm. Results show that knowledge of existing varieties, perception about the attributes of improved varieties, household wealth (livestock and land) and availability of active labor force are major determinants for adoption of improved technologies. Our results suggest that the adoption of improved agricultural technologies has a significant positive impact on farmers’ integration into output market and the findings are consistent across the three models suggesting the robustness of the results. This confirms the potential direct role of technology adoption on market participation among rural households, as higher productivity from improved technology translates into higher output market integration.
Mulubrhan Amare, Solomon Asfawb, Bekele Shiferaw This article examines the driving forces behind farmers’ decisions to adopt improved pigeonpea and maize and estimates the causal impact of technology adoption on household welfare using data obtained from a random cross-section sample of 613 small-scale farmers in Tanzania. We use seemingly unrelated and recursive bivariate probit regressions to test the endogeneity and joint decision making of pigeonpea–maize production. A double hurdle model is used to analyze the determinants of the intensity of technology adoption conditional on overcoming seed access constraints. To address the impact of adoption on welfare, the article employs both propensity score matching and switching regression techniques. Results from bivariate probit models show that unobservable factors cause both decisions to be correlated but the finding does not support the conjecture that both decisions are made jointly. Overall the analysis of the determinants of adoption identifies inadequate local supply of seed, access to information, human capital, and access to private productive asset as key constraints for pigeonpea technology adoption. The causal impact estimation from both the propensity score matching and switching regression suggests that maize/pigeonpea adoption has a positive and significant impact on income and consumption expenditure among sample households.
Directives pour le fonctionnement d’un systeme national de surveillance de la securite alimentaire et d’alerte précoce
The Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum) organized a seminar on a recently published book entitled: How to end hunger in times of crises. Let's start now! We invited FSN Forum members in Rome and interested FAO staff to join a discussion with the two authors, Andrew MacMillan and Ignacio Trueba.
The course provides an overview of Social Safety Net programmes and systems and how they are used and customized according to different contexts. It also introduces the key processes for designing and implementing Social Safety Net programmes
Notas a propósito del tratamiento de la agricultura por el Plan de Desarrollo del actual gobierno Colombiano
The rationale for these FAO guidelines is to provide a standardized questionnaire of universal applicability from which various dietary diversity scores can be calculated. As such it is not culture, population, or location specific and therefore, prior to using it in the field, it will be necessary to adapt it to the local context. This is a revised version of the guidelines for measuring dietary diversity. The main changes in this version are i) the proposal for a new individual dietary diversity score based on results of the Women’s Dietary Diversity Project (Arimond et al., 2010) and ii) an annex on classifying food items into food groups. Guidance is provided on how to calculate the HDDS and the Women’s Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS), but users can also calculate scores obtained from the standardized questionnaire for individuals from other age/sex groups according to the needs of the study. The guidelines describe how to adapt and use the dietary diversity questionnaire, how to calculate each of the scores and how to create other indicators of interest from dietary diversity data.