Ce débat en ligne a pour but d’enrichir la discussion qui sera stimulée par le lancement officiel le 7 mars de la publication phare de la FAO Situation mondiale de l’alimentation et de l’agriculture (SOFA) 2010-11 sur le thème Women in agriculture: closing the gender gap for development et la célébration par la FAO de la Journée internationale de la femme le 8 mars, qui abordera également ce thème.
Malgré leur rôle fondamental et leur contribution à l'agriculture et à la sécurité alimentaire, le statut des femmes au sein de la communauté ainsi que des lois statutaires ou coutumières discriminatoires compromettent leur capacité d'accès à la terre et à d'autres ressources naturelles. Que faire pour y remédier ? Quels sont les exemples de politiques et d'outils susceptibles de promouvoir les droits fonciers des femmes?
Women make essential contributions to agriculture in developing countries, where they constitute approximately 43 percent of the agricultural labor force. However, female farmers typically have lower output per unit of land and are much less likely to be active in commercial farming than their male counterparts. These gender differences in land productivity and participation between male and female farmers are due to gender differences in access to inputs, resources, and services. In this paper, we review the evidence on productivity differences and access to resources. We discuss some of the reasons for these differences, such as differences in property rights, education, control over resources (e.g., land), access to inputs and services (e.g., fertilizer, extension, and credit), and social norms. Although women are less active in commercial farming and are largely excluded from contract farming, they often provide the bulk of wage labor in the nontraditional export sector. In general, gender gaps do not appear to fall systematically with growth, and they appear to rise with GDP per capita and with greater access to resources and inputs. Active policies that support women's access and participation, not just greater overall access, are essential if these gaps are to be closed. The gains in terms of greater productivity of land and overall production are likely to be large.
Andre Croppenstedt, Markus Goldstein and Nina Rosas
The present study examines the right to food of rural women by underlining the
international legal framework applicable to rural women, analysing the patterns of
discrimination harming them, proposing strategies and policies for their legal protection and emphasizing good practices. The study has a special focus on female-headed households and temporary or seasonal workers.