By: José Graziano da Silva; Mauro Eduardo Del Grossi; Caio Galvão de França.
The launching of the “Zero Hunger Project – a proposal for a food security policy for Brazil” in October 2001 by the then candidate for the presidency Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva reflected the maturing of discussions and proposals on food security and fighting hunger, which became national priorities to be addressed through planned and decisive actions of the State with social participation. With the electoral victory of President Lula in 2003, the Zero Hunger project became the main governmental strategy guiding economic and social policies in Brazil and marked the beginning of an inflection that left behind an old dichotomy between them. Actions began to be taken to integrate structural policies into emergency policies to fight hunger and poverty. New, differentiated policies for family farming were implemented and basic legislation was built for the national food and nutrition security policy. This book is part of the NEAD Debate Series (Série NEAD Debate) and it presents some fundamental texts for one to understand the Brazilian experience with the Zero Hunger Program at different moments of its implementation over an eight-year period as a Government Program, bringing together reflections on different aspects of the process, such as the mobilization of different segments of society around it, the role of family farming, advances and challenges, among others.
This training handbook is a field guide for training urban and peri-urban vegetable farmers in safe practices when using wastewater in vegetable production. It is designed to provide complete information, knowledge and skills for safer and successful production of vegetables in urban and peri-urban farming systems. Once you have gained this knowledge, we urge you to share the knowledge and skills you have gained with other farmers in your neighbourhood, so that they too can produce
cleaner and healthy vegetables.
Globalization is one of the greatest strategic challenges for agricultural cooperatives. Globalization has increased significantly over the last decade, and despite financial crises and recession in many parts of the world globalization will likely continue — albeit with less force than before. Cooperatives have specific challenges of globalization. In some areas, cooperative challenges have been solved. Critical issues such as the use of foreign raw materials and production abroad are now a part of business development in several large cooperatives. Foreign members are also increasingly common, still not without challenges. In other areas, however, more structural and fundamental problems persist. Here major changes in the organization of cooperatives are required if all advantages of globalization are to be exploited. Danish agriculture has for decades been characterized by a high market share for cooperatives and a structure which to a high degree has been export and globally oriented, indicating no specific problem concerning globalization of cooperatives.
This paper seeks to better understand the historic origins of current differences in norms and beliefs about the appropriate role of women in society. We test the hypothesis that traditional agricultural practices influenced the historic gender division of labor and the evolution and persistence of gender norms. We find that, consistent with existing hypotheses, the descendants of pre-industrial societies that practiced plough agriculture, today have lower rates of female participation in the work place, in politics, and in entrepreneurial activities, as well as attitudes reflecting gender inequality. We identify the causal impact of traditional plough use on gender norms today by exploiting variation in the historic geo-climatic suitability of the environment for growing crops that differentially benefited from the adoption of the plough. Our IV estimates, based on this variation, support the findings from OLS. To isolate the importance of cultural transmission as a mechanism, we examine female labor force participation of second generation immigrants living within the US.