Globalization is one of the greatest strategic challenges for agricultural cooperatives. Globalization has increased significantly over the last decade, and despite financial crises and recession in many parts of the world globalization will likely continue — albeit with less force than before. Cooperatives have specific challenges of globalization. In some areas, cooperative challenges have been solved. Critical issues such as the use of foreign raw materials and production abroad are now a part of business development in several large cooperatives. Foreign members are also increasingly common, still not without challenges. In other areas, however, more structural and fundamental problems persist. Here major changes in the organization of cooperatives are required if all advantages of globalization are to be exploited. Danish agriculture has for decades been characterized by a high market share for cooperatives and a structure which to a high degree has been export and globally oriented, indicating no specific problem concerning globalization of cooperatives.
This paper seeks to better understand the historic origins of current differences in norms and beliefs about the appropriate role of women in society. We test the hypothesis that traditional agricultural practices influenced the historic gender division of labor and the evolution and persistence of gender norms. We find that, consistent with existing hypotheses, the descendants of pre-industrial societies that practiced plough agriculture, today have lower rates of female participation in the work place, in politics, and in entrepreneurial activities, as well as attitudes reflecting gender inequality. We identify the causal impact of traditional plough use on gender norms today by exploiting variation in the historic geo-climatic suitability of the environment for growing crops that differentially benefited from the adoption of the plough. Our IV estimates, based on this variation, support the findings from OLS. To isolate the importance of cultural transmission as a mechanism, we examine female labor force participation of second generation immigrants living within the US.
Resilient Livelihoods is FAO’s interdisciplinary Framework Programme on Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security. It provides strategic direction to FAO member countries and partners for the implementation of disaster risk reduction measures in agriculture, forestry and fisheries at local, national, regional and global levels.
Through its disaster risk reduction activities, FAO seeks to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events.
This Framework Programme reflects the Hyogo Framework for Action and strives to assist member countries implement its five Priorities for Action for the agricultural sectors. It also responds to recent recommendations made on disaster risk reduction by the Committee on Agriculture, the Programme and Finance Committee, the Committee on World Food Security and the Committee on Fisheries.
It contributes to meeting the needs of member countries, as expressed in the Regional Areas of Priority Action and identified by FAO Regional Conferences held in 2010.
While the Framework Programme supports national government partners, the direct beneficiaries are smallholders in developing countries, including small-scale farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and the urban poor - particularly women - whose lives and livelihoods are threatened. Small-scale farmers represent 90 percent of the rural poor and make up the majority of the world's hungry population.
In the years ahead, development efforts aiming at reducing vulnerability will increasingly have to factor in climate change, and social protection is no exception. This paper sets out the case for climate‐responsive social protection and proposes a framework with principles, design features, and functions that would help SP systems evolve in a climate‐responsive direction. The principles comprise climate‐aware planning; livelihood‐based pproaches that consider the full range of assets and institutions available to households and ommunities; and aiming for resilient ommunities by planning for the long term. Four design features that can help achieve this are: scalable and flexible programs that can ncrease coverage in response to climate isasters; climate‐responsive targeting systems; investments in livelihoods that build community and household resilience; and promotion of better climate risk management.