Topic: Technology

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The state of broadband 2012: Achieving digital inclusion for all

High-speed affordable broadband connectivity to the Internet is essential to modern society, offering widely recognized economic and social benefits. The Broadband Commission for Digital Development promotes the adoption of broadband-friendly practices and policies for all, so everyone can take advantage of the benefits offered by broadband.
With this Report, the Broadband Commission expands awareness and understanding of the importance of broadband networks, services, and applications for generating economic growth and achieving social progress.
It has been written collaboratively, drawing on insightful and thought-provoking contributions from our leading array of Commissioners and their organizations, foremost in their fields.



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Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

One of the key challenges of the 21st century is developing ways of producing sufficient amounts of food while protecting both environmental quality and the economic well-being of rural communities. Over the last half century, conventional approaches to crop production have relied heavily on manufactured fertilizers and pesticides to increase yields, but they have also degraded water quality and posed threats to human health and wildlife. Consequently, attention is now being directed toward the development of crop production systems with improved resource use efficiencies and more benign effects on the environment. Less attention has been paid to developing better methods of pest management, especially for weeds. Here we explore the potential benefits of diversifying cropping systems as a means of controlling weed population dynamics while simultaneously enhancing other desirable agroecosystem processes. We focus on crop rotation, an approach to cropping system diversification whereby different species are placed in the same field at different times.

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ASTI global assessment of agricultural R&D spending

Overall, global agricultural R&D spending in the public and private sectors steadily increased between 2000 and 2008. As further proof of positive development, most of this growth was driven by developing countries, since growth in high-income countries stalled. But, spending growth in developing countries was largely driven by positive trends in a number of larger, more advanced middle-income countries—such as China and India—masking negative trends in numerous smaller, poorer, and more technologically challenged countries. Countries in this last group are often highly vulnerable to severe volatility in funding, and hence in spending, which impedes the continuity and ultimately the viability of their research programs. Many R&D agencies in this group lack the necessary human, operating, and infrastructural resources to successfully develop, adapt, and disseminate science and technology innovations.

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Notes Techniques sur le maraîchage à l'usage des écoles

La culture des légumes révèle un caractère très important dans nos écoles primaires. Les légumes apportent un plus nutritionnel. Chez les enfants, le régime alimentaire adéquat est celui composé par des légumes. Ils sont presque tous riches en carotène et en vitamine C et également de fer, de calcium et d’autres minéraux. La carence en éléments minéraux tels que la vitamine A fréquente chez les enfants, pourrait être réduite par la consommation de feuilles vertes et d’autres légumes. Ce document comprend les techniques utilisées au maraîchage. Il est écrit dans un style simple en vue de permettre aux écoliers d'acquérir des connaissances et les techniques utilisées dans les travaux agricoles spécialement le maraîchage. Le document a été réalisé comme un outil de formation dans le cadre d'un projet d'urgence conduite en Centrafrique OSRO/CAF/501/SWE " Appui au développement des jardins potagers dans les écoles des zones les plus affectées par la crise"