Contributions for WFP-FAO co-led Post 2015 Global Thematic Consultation on Hunger, Food Security and Nutrition

Angela Cahill Ireland

The key building block for child survival, growth and healthy development is provided exclusive breastfeeding for six months, with continued breastfeeding for up to two years or beyond with the addition of safe and nutritionally adequate complementary foods. These optimal infant feeding practices, as defined in the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, provide the foundations for the achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goal. Scientific research has shown that breastfeeding is good for mothers, babies and societies. In conditions of poverty and in emergency situations, breastfeeding is a real lifeline and artificial feeding is a huge risk to infant survival. Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes and subsequent relevant WHA Resolutions Independent monitoring clearly shows that companies continue to systematically and aggressively market foods for infants and young children using techniques that mislead parents about the risks of artificial feeding and undermine breastfeeding. Such marketing is acknowledged to have a direct, negative impact on the realization of rights of children and women, in particular on the right to health and to adequate food. Correct and unbiased information There is a poor understanding of the fact that breastfeeding should be regarded as a norm and artificial feeding as a substitute that can never be equal to the norm , and how much support a mother needs to succeed in practicing exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and to continue for 2 years or beyond. The need for supportive health care systems Commercial pressures lead to inadequate support provided to women by the health care system. Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), the backbone of which is formed by the ‘Ten steps for successful breastfeeding’, is a key initiative to ensure breastfeeding support within the health care system.

Anna Hudson Ireland

Please specifically include breastfeeding in the new Millennium Development Goals. 

Breastfeeding is free, it requires no sterilisation of equipment which can be a problem in areas which lack access to clean water, it is better for babies and reduces infant mortality rates and better for mothers. 

The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitues should be fully implemented. 



Ariella Rojhani NCD Alliance, United States of America

We are currently facing a triple burden of malnutrition: under-nutrition, micronutrient deficiency, and overnutrition/overconsumption, often within the same countries, communities and households.

The triple burden of malnutrition is symptomatic of underlying problems: poverty, inequalities and dysfunctional food systems. 

A single focus on undernutrition is insufficient to address either the range of nutritional problems affecting every country in the world, or the oncoming tsunami of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma and other NCDS linked to overweight/obesity. 

Ariane Marcar Warwick University, United Kingdom

The challenges we face towards achieving food and nutritional security are substantial, if not daunting. We are putting our whole agricultural system at risk through a series of converging factors that have become global in nature (climate change, increased soil degradation and water stress, decrease in soil fertility, industrial and agricultural pollution, rapid demographic growth we can ill afford and commodity speculation forcing food prices upwards).

One cannot get away from the triangle: population-C02-natural resources. Right now the combination population-technology is widening the gap between humanty's footprint and the available biocapacity. The biotehcnological solutions proposed to date are also either inadequate, problematic or still experimental and so not capable of redressing the situation within the temporal limits we now have to work in, in which we are confronted with having to try and feed an 2 extra billion or more by 2050! Therefore unless we bring our population levels down and restore soil fertility we are unlikely to succeed. This means promoting agro-ecological alternatives over agricultural intensification.

It is in these two areas that we need to focus all our efforts, as well as on making sure temperatures to do not rise above 2 C. I attach a paper on why another Green Revolution in Africa (or elsewhere for that matter) is unadvisable, as the points are relevant to both themes I and II. Respectfully submitted by Dr. A. Marcar.

George Kent University of Hawai'i (Emeritus), United States of America

Current global discussions on food security and nutrition neglect the needs of infants and young children. Optimal breastfeeding (initiation within an hour after birth, exclusive breastfeeding for six months, and continued breastfeeding for up to two years and beyond) is under pressure in both low-income and high-income countries. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes is not fully implemented, and there are several issues that are not covered by that Code. The infant formula manufacturers are planning large-scale increases in infant formula use throughout the world, and no agencies are prepared to assess the likely impacts. On the basis of extensive scientific research that has already been done on formula feeding in comparison with breastfeeding, the new wave of formula feeding is likely to result in considerable harm to the health of both infants and mothers.


As suggested in my recent book on Regulating Infant Formula, many of the issues could be addressed at the global level through a new Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The new Optional Protocol could present a set of widely agreed principles regarding the nutrition of children.


Working under the auspices of the United Nations General Assembly, the nations of the world could negotiate a draft OPCN. Drafts could be prepared by national governments working together with nongovernmental organizations. The drafters could draw from the many documents that already propose sound principles relating to children’s nutrition such as the World Health Organization’s Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. There are many other documents, now scattered, whose core ideas could be pulled together.


After the draft OPCN was adopted by the UN General Assembly, it would be open to ratification by the nations of the world. Ratification would indicate the nation’s acceptance of the OPCN and its commitment to conform its national laws to it.


The OPCN would not replace international bodies such as the United Nations Children’s Fund or the Codex Alimentarius Commission, nor would it replace national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The OPCN would help to harmonize the work of all participating countries at the national level. It would be the apex document, setting out important principles relating to the nutrition of infants and young children.


The drafters of the OPCN would have to accommodate diversity and recognize the important differences in cultural approaches to raising children in different places. As a global document, it would focus mainly on widely accepted principles, and leave the details of implementation to be worked out in different countries according to their particular circumstances.


One of the basic principles of the OPCN would be that children have a right to foods that are both safe and nutritionally adequate. The concepts would be defined at the global level, but implemented concretely at the national level. This approach would place children’s nutrition decisively into the human rights framework. Like other forms of international law, it would not result in immediate compliance, but it would establish clear and widely agreed standards, and it would support the preparation of strong law at the national level. A new Optional Protocol on Children’s Nutrition, linked to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would help to establish coherent regulations for ensuring that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished.


Aloha, George Kent


Below are several key learnings from our Conservation Agriculture projects in Malawi and Zambia that related to the post-2015 discussion:


  1. The hiring of female extension officers should be made a priority in agriculture programmes carried out by both government ministries and donor agencies. Enabling women to produce greater yields, particularly in non-staple foodstuffs, would greatly increase overall household nutrition, as well as provide more diverse market opportunities for women.
  • Directly addresses: MDG #1, target C;
  • Indirect – MDG #3, 4, and 5


  1. Adjustment of government policies to reduce their emphasis on maize production and marketing, so that greater market opportunities for non-maize foodstuffs can be exploited. This can be accomplished in the following ways:
    1. Reducing floor price of maize to reflect actual market prices.
    2. Utilizing the existing grain depots and other infrastructure as clearing houses for bulking, storage, and selling of all crops (other than maize).
    3. Increasing quotas for the purchase of crops other than maize


Furthermore, governments and agencies should collaborate to create district-level agricultural marketing plans to help connect rural producers directly to local, urban, and peri-urban markets.

  • Directly addresses: MDG #1, targets A& C;


  1. Implementation plans for agriculture, in which CA is strongly emphasized, need to be carried out at the district level in conjunction with farmers at a variety of economic levels in order for interventions to present a diversity of CA methods that match local agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions. These plans should be vetted by CA task forces made up of relevant stakeholders, and then used as frameworks through which agencies must adhere to in their implementation of CA programs.
  • Directly addresses: MDG#8, Targets A, B and C


  1. We strongly caution against the free distribution of hybrid seeds and fertilizers as a means of incentivizing adoption of CA, as it irrevocably creates a dependency that can rarely be sustained following project completion. Programmes implementing CA need to present a diversity of methological and technological options for the farmers to experiment with and innovate to fit their particular situation; this could include mulching (bio-mass transfer), cover-cropping, intercropping, agroforestry, etc. Input distribution should be limited to sustainable “one-off” seeds; in particular, the use of open-pollinated varieties that can be harvested and replanted in subsequent seasons with little yield loss.


  1. We at Concern are not opposed to the use of Green Revolution technologies, including seeds, fertilizers, chemical herbicides and/or pesticides. As such, farmers with means in areas with agro-business infrastructure should be supported in accessing loans through microfinance agencies in order to adopt CA. However, it must be recognized that the high costs, limited access, and management regimens that are a prerequisite of these technologies cannot be sustained over the long-term by most small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa without first building their capacities within their existing local resource base. Furthermore, a diversity of approaches may lead to greater diversity of nutritional and economic resources produced by the implementing households.
  • Directly addresses: MDG#7A, 8F
  • Indirectly addresses: MDG #1C
Conchi Quintana World Rural Forum, Spain

Saludos cordiales desde el Foro Rural Mundial, asociación responsable de la coordinación de la Sociedad Civil  para la preparación y  promoción del Año Internacional de la Agricultura Familiar, AIAF- 2014.


La Agricultura Familiar representa un sector de valor estratégico debido a su función económica, social, cultural, ambiental y territorial. Los hombres y mujeres dedicados a la Agricultura Familiar producen el 70% de los alimentos del mundo, en un  contexto de falta de apoyo generalizado.


La Agricultura Familiar es la base de la producción sostenible de alimentos destinados a la seguridad alimentaria y a la soberanía alimentaria, de la gestión ambiental de la tierra y su biodiversidad y de la preservación de la importante herencia sociocultural de las comunidades rurales y las naciones.


La Agricultura Familiar, campesina, pastores, pesca artesanal, comunidades indígenas, representa el modelo más sostenible en la lucha contre el Hambre y la Malnutrición. Incluso el Banco Mundial, Informe sobre la Agricultura 2008, considera que los alimentos deben ser producidos cerca de los consumidores, de los que pasan hambre. El 75% de éstos son mujeres y hombres pequeños campesinos, jornaleros sin tierra.


Nuestras reivindicaciones a nivel general


Para mejorar las condiciones de los hombres y mujeres dedicados a la Agricultura Familiar y liberar todo su potencial como agentes principales en la lucha para acabar con la pobreza y el hambre en el mundo, tenemos que fortalecer su voz, transformar las instituciones y abogar por políticas que respondan a sus necesidades.


En este sentido 200 hombres y mujeres líderes de organizaciones campesinas nacionales, regionales e internacionales, de grupos de la sociedad civil y movimientos sociales y de las principales instituciones académicas y de investigación de cuatro continentes del mundo reunidos en Bilbao, España, en Octubre 2011,con motivo de la Conferencia Mundial de Agricultura Familiar bajo el lema "Alimentar al mundo, Cuidar el Planeta" acordaron una Declaración Final en la que establecieron los principales retos a superar a fin de dar sentido a la reivindicación general presentada en este punto.


1. Asegurar que las instituciones públicas sean responsables ante el conjunto de las familias de agricultores, aplicando mejores políticas agrarias que  proporcionen servicios específicos de calidad (infraestructura, extensión, investigación e innovación tecnológica, información, difusión pública, educación, respuestas de emergencia, etc.).


2. Fortalecer las organizaciones y los movimientos de agricultores familiares para aumentar su influencia sobre las políticas, las instituciones y los mercados.


3. Definir las inversiones y el desarrollo de políticas, en consulta con las organizaciones de agricultores familiares que se dedican específicamente a atender las necesidades de la Agricultura Familiar.


Ver documento completo de la declaración en defensa de la Agricultura Familiar tras la Conferencia Mundial de Agricultura Familiar bajo el lema "Alimentar al mundo, Cuidar el Planeta". Octubre 2011, Bilbao, España.


Mujer agricultora


Por otra parte, una cuarta parte de la población mundial está compuesta de mujeres agricultoras, a menudo cabezas de familia, que representan unos 1.600 millones de personas. (FUENTE: Fundación Cumbre Mundial de Mujeres, Ginebra).


El cierre de la brecha de género en la agricultura generaría beneficios considerables para el sector agrícola y la sociedad. Si las mujeres tuvieran el mismo acceso a los recursos productivos que los hombres podrían aumentar el rendimiento de sus explotaciones agrícolas de un 20% a un 30 %. La mejora en los rendimientos permitiría superar la subsistencia y destinar parte de la producción a los mercados locales. De esta manera, se logran impactos positivos a varios niveles. Por un lado las mujeres obtendrían mejores y mayores beneficios, el territorio se mantendría productivo y la población tendría un mejor acceso a alimentos.


Los posibles beneficios variarían según la región en función de cuántas mujeres se dedican actualmente a la agricultura, cuánta producción o tierras controlan, y la amplitud de la brecha de género a la que se enfrentan. (SOFA 2011)


Las áreas prioritarias para la reforma son las siguientes:


- Eliminar la discriminación de la mujer en el acceso a los recursos agrícolas, la educación, los servicios de extensión y financieros así como los mercados de trabajo;


- Invertir en tecnologías e infraestructura que permitan ahorrar trabajo y mejorar la productividad de modo que las mujeres dispongan de más tiempo libre para dedicarse a actividades más productivas;


- Facilitar la participación de la mujer en mercados de trabajo rural que sean flexibles, eficientes y justos. (FAO. 2011. El estado mundial de la agricultura y la alimentación 2010-11: Las mujeres en la Agricultura).


Los próximos Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenibles deben considerar estas realidades marcando metas muy concretas para mejorar situación de la Agricultura Familiar en general y de la Mujer Agricultora en particular. En la definición de estos objetivos concretos deben participar activamente los principales protagonistas del proceso: los y las agricultores familiares.


En este sentido, el FRM anticipa que va a presentar una propuesta formal, a desarrollar en profundidad durante el año 2013, para solicitar a Naciones Unidas la inclusión del apoyo a  la Agricultura Familiar Sostenible como un Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODM) en la lista de objetivos a formalizar a partir del año 2015. La propuesta va a ser fruto de un intenso trabajo entre responsables de Organizaciones Agrarias y de Desarrollo, en colaboración con centros de investigación y organizaciones multilaterales. Todas las organizaciones involucradas en este trabajo reconocen el papel crucial de la Agricultura Familiar para erradicar el hambre y la pobreza en el mundo de forma sostenible, de forma que su apoyo se convierta en un indicador esencial de Desarrollo.


Muchas gracias por su atención.


Miren Larrea y Conchi Quintana

Area de Contenidos del Foro Rural Mundial

See the attachment: Agricultura Familiar
Memoona Manzoor Pakistan

What should we do to overcome the Hunger, Food &Nutrition Insecurity with reference of Pakistan?


Current situation in Pakistan :

Source: Pakistan National Nutrition Survey, 2011

Taken from Dawn News paper 9th May, 2012.


Steps to help eradicate Hunger from Pakistan:


  1. Improve Cultivation techniques on Country Level.
  2. Properly taught Formers for the selection of seasoned crops.
  3. Increased the Food of Animal origin.
  4. Evaluation of the needs of food at household level.
  5. Control the prices of food.
  6. Improve storage conditions.
  7. Implementation of food laws by the Government of Pakistan to control contaminations.
  8. Appointment of properly trained staff in the assessment of malnutrition.
  9. Facilitate the small scale former (livelihood activities).
  10. Establishing of feeding programs.
See the attachment: how to reduce hunger (2).docx
Nestor Ngouambe MINADER, Cameroon

[English version]


Small scale farmers fed the world.


In Cameroon, about 90% of food production is made by small farmers with less than one hectare of land surface cultivation. the production goals of those farmer is based on subsidence just a little surplus is sold.


Since 2008, Cameroon launched a new vision of development based on growth and employment. according to this goals, Cameron have a be considered as emergent country by 2035 year. and agriculture is considered as corner stone leading to achieve this goals. so Ministry of agriculture and rural development aims to move from small scale agriculture to enterprise agriculture.


In this context, I am asking that what sustainability of small scale farmer whose are still ensuring 90% of food production? Those categories of farmer are there ready to manage their farm like agricultural enterprise? there will be still able to continue feeding Cameroonian? will they easily access to land in other to mechanized their activities in this context where foreign investor have privileges on local farmer?


Based on this question, i am afraid on the increasing level of food insecurity. we have to improved the capacity of small scale farmer, give to then more input to increase their yield to their small land cultivation. by doing so and according to the fact that they actually ensure 90% of food production, they will be able to feed all Cameroonian by producing 100% of food.


[French version]


Transformation agricole et sécurité alimentaire.


dans un contexte de mondialisation et surtout du changement climatique où les pertes post récoltes vont grandissantes, la transformation agricole s'avère être incontournable pour la sécurité alimentaire dans le monde.


les techniques de transformation artisanales des produits alimentaires sont progressivement maîtrisé par les petits producteurs notamment les femmes. mais au vu de la forte demande, il est important de passer au stade de la transformation semi industrielle de ces aliments.


Au Cameroun les femmes et les jeunes sont très engagées dans la transformation des racines et tubercules précisément le manioc. le manioc est une racine qui se concerne au maximum 72 heures après sa récolte. cependant c'est l'une des racines les plus consonnés au Cameroun après les céréales. les femmes s'active à le transformé en Fufu, farine de manioc, gari, bâton de manioc, et plus récemment en pâtisserie alimentaire (gâteau, pain, pâtte alimentaire). Le groupe d'initiative Commune dénommé " Sécurité Alimentaire du Cameroun- SAC" est un exemple d'initiative à soutenir pour la sécurité alimentaire. ces jeunes dynamiques transforment le manioc en divers produits dont le jus de tapoica, patte alimentaire... et contribue à la réduction des pertes post récoltes et à la sécurité alimentaire des populations. malgré ces efforts, une sensibilisation des populations est importante afin qu'elle puisse se familiariser à la consommation des produits transformés localement. aussi un accent doit être mis sur la sécurité sanitaire des aliments.


c'est pour ainsi dire que la transformation des produits agricole joue un rôle clé dans la sécurité alimentaire des populations. et un accent particulier doit être tourné vers ce secteurs productif.

Alade Adeleke Nigerian Conservation Foundation, Nigeria

1. So many factors prevent the insulation of the poor from hunger, food insecurity and mal-nutirtion. Appraoch to achieving MDGs should strive to address these factors when seeking solutions for a better future. While the focus on food production is good, there is the need to broaden attention on sfaeguards that dissalows waste, secure efficient natural resource management in favour of sustainable production of food and efforts on energy in support of food based agriculture. 


Most stand alone MDG thematic areas are highly connected to Hunger, Nutrition and Food Security. Good examples are Energy, Management to and Access to Water Resources, Environmental Sustainability and Natura Resources and the issue Governance.


Efficiency in provision and management of energy in sustainable ways will help promote production, food storage and bio-technology applications. But energy provision and management have suffered stebacks in the face of poor governance, poor leadership and in some cases ineqality in resource allocation and prioritisation  to favour the poor and the needy.


2. Investment in research and development to support wild crops is paramount.  Materials in the wild have been a great source of food and fibre for poor households in the last Millenium and have degraded heavilly in the past fifty years as the world natural resource becomes more depleted. Promotion of food biodiversity most particularly through flora and fauna conservation provides great support for other sources of food through traditional and modern farming techniques. Emphasis on food from the wild is needed as an integral part of planning for fight against hunger in the coming years. 


Promotion of crop varities of local origins and sometimes local hybrids will only help broaden the world food sources. Over globalisation of the most popular strains of food is good for trade and boost in pridcution but broadening local sources of food materials will help the world poor to be insulated against hunger in the events of eventualities such as large scale flooding, sea level rises, and some other natural disasters that may impact on mass food production anyhow and anytime.