Contributions for WFP-FAO co-led Post 2015 Global Thematic Consultation on Hunger, Food Security and Nutrition

Maria Sfarra FAO - WFP Facilitation Team, Italy

Dear Participants,


Thank you so much for your contributions to-date.


With specific reference to Theme 3, I wanted to draw your attention to The Lancet medical journal’s 2008 series on maternal and child under nutrition which describes the scale and consequences of under nutrition and identifies proven interventions and strategies for reducing this burden. The Lancet has indicated that if under nutrition can be overcome, especially during the first 1,000 days from the start of pregnancy to a child’s second birthday, not only can lives be saved, but children can also grow to realize their full potential. How can UN agencies, governments, civil society, the private sector and individuals best join forces to overcome the many challenges posed by under nutrition ?


How can we collectively move closer to a future where all human beings have access to adequate nutrition, enabling them to develop to their full potential and live healthy lives ?


Maria Sfarra FAO-WFP Facilitation Team

Diane Mulligan CBM, United Kingdom

Disability, hunger, food and nutrition security – a contribution by CBM


There are an estimated one billion persons with disabilities worldwide[1].  Persons with disabilities are particularly at risk to the effects of climate change, such as food security.  In order to be effective, any framework or action plan in relation to the post-2015 MDGs must incorporate disability-inclusive development principles. 


Disability is both a cause and consequence of poverty.   The impacts of climate change (extreme weather, sea level changes and agriculture productivity changes, leading to food insecurity) will affect the world’s poorest people[2]. They are some of the most vulnerable to environmental degradation and changes. It is estimated there will be at least 200 million people displaced by climatic events by 2050, of whom at least 30 million are likely to be persons with disabilities (15% of population). There are many others who are left behind to struggle for a livelihood in degraded environments[3].


The health status of millions of people, including persons with disabilities and the prevalence of disability are projected to be affected by climate change through increases in malnutrition[4].   Persons with disabilities and their families living in poverty are facing reduced access to: clean water; fertile soils and suitable growing conditions for cropping and livestock; to fuel-wood and other energy sources; to wild foods, medicinal plants and other natural products related to their livelihoods[5]. Persons with disabilities and their families face real barriers in accessing food[6]. The gender dimension is being addressed by programmes increasingly working with women in:   improving food security; social protection through livelihood activities; sustainable, small scale, climate-smart food production; and improved access to markets[7]. These programmes also need to address disability exclusion by ensuring active participation of persons with disabilities and their families.  Food insecurity and malnutrition can lead to long term and/or permanent impairments.  There are strong links between childhood malnutrition and acquiring impairments. Malnutrition is estimated to cause about 20 per cent of impairments[8].


Conflict is a leading cause of physical and psychological disability. Conflict attributable to climate change will increase[9] , because food and water resources will become increasingly scarce or hard to access.  The “responsibilities of States to respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedom for all” is now formally recognized in final outcome document of Rio 2012[10].  This can be achieved by including people with disabilities and adopting a rights-based approach.  The right to food security, water rights and sustainable agriculture would assist in improving food quality; ensuring appropriate utilization of food; and involving crisis prevention, preparedness and management.  Mechanisms for the assessment and monitoring of malnutrition and food crisis need to be established as a minimum requirement in food security and humanitarian programmes.


In addition, indicators related to the capacities of the affected population to participate in food chains, processing and production need to include groups particularly at risk, such as persons with disabilities.


In poor regions of the world population growth rates continue to place pressures on the poorest people for food and other resources. In sub-Saharan Africa population growth rate was 2.54% in 2010, (global rate 1.16%).


Higher food prices due to climate change combined with urbanisation trends will lead to more households being net food consumers; this too will affect (urban) poor people more[11].   CBM works in partnership to ensure persons with disabilities are included in food security emergency response programmes in the ‘Horn of Africa’ and Sahel Region of West Africa,  where over 20 million people have been in need of assistance from the worst droughts experienced over the last 60+ years.


For more information contact: Diane Mulligan




[1] World Health Organization and World Bank (2011) World Report on Disability.  Geneva: WHO Press.


[2] Eighty per cent of the 300 million people who live within 5 meters of sea level are in developing countries. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Debate on Sea-Level Rise: Critical Stakes for Poor Countries: February 2, 2007. (accessed 13 February 2012).


[3]  International Organisation for Migration. Migration, climate change and environmental degradation: a complex nexus.


[4] IPPC (2007).


[5] European Commission (2007) Environmental Integration Handbook for EC Development Cooperation.


[6]  World Health Organization and World Bank (2011) World Report on Disability.  Geneva: WHO Press, page 10. ‘Households with a disabled member are more likely to experience material hardship – including food insecurity, poor housing, lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and inadequate access to health care’.


[7] Food and Nutrition – ‘Security for All through Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems’; Note from the United Nations System High Level Task Force on Global Food Security, March 2012,


[8] Department for International Development (DFID) (2000) Disability, Poverty and Development, DFID, UK.


[9] IPCC (2007) Fourth Assessment Report.  Working Group II. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.


[11] Skoufias, E., Rabassa, M. & Olivieri, O. (2011) The Poverty Impacts of Climate Change: A Review of the Evidence, Policy Research Working Paper 5622, The World Bank.


Mahesh Moodley Independent, South Africa

When we think of hunger one thinks of the bodies mechanism to instruct ourselves to seek for nutrients that will sustain and grow us as a species .However this endeavor has been complicated in this day in age. We come to an understanding that money is required to obtain resources so that we can create a life for ourselves and our families.


And this "money" we speak of is created by selling resources to each another. But we then question how much money is enough to create a life we want ?We  must realise  we live in a physically finite planet.


So do we walk a path were more is more which will lead us to ruin by placing profits before sustainability or do we adhere to a framework of enhancing our sustainability as a species  by identifying a carrying capacity so we all can live a life of equality based on communication across boudries, borders and states so that resources can be managed collectively for the betterment of everyone.


To truly eradicate  hunger ,conflict ,apathy, famine, disease, crime and inequality we need to achieve a post scarcity society. A society  were economic models are superfluous. I have uploaded a document called "The Way Upward".


In this document I go into detail on how to achieve such a world. It is thus in the best interest of the United Nations to review the recommendations in the named document


I thank you for your time


Regards Mahesh Moodley

See the attachment: The Way Upward.pdf
Mohan Munasinghe MIND, Sri Lanka

See attached article: “MILLENNIUM CONSUMPTION GOALS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY: Applying the Sustainomics Framework”

Codrin Paveliuc Olariu Young Professionals in Local Development, Romania

For Emily Levitt Ruppert


Although a descentralization approach has been pushed on countries and local communities in the past several years and globalization has forced us to think this way, we forgot to focused specifically on the needs and development of the local community. This can be done either through centralized policies adapted to local specificities or the local development strategies that ensure a perfect grasp of the environment. In both cases, we must assess the need and develop detailed strategies.

See attached a framework for a possible needs and development analysis applicable to local communities.




Codrin Paveliuc Olariu

See the attachment: Conceptual_model.pdf
Codrin Paveliuc Olariu Young Professionals in Local Development, Romania

For Ugo Gentilini,


To answer your question: The social protection system can be used in principle to ensure access to food, but it is not recommended. As the food aid and food stamps (just to name a few) systems showed us so far, giving food is just a start and a way to alleviate immediate danger to human health, but not a solution to solve M1 and to get to "Zero Hunger". 


If we want to prevent future food crisis, we must ensure sustainability of the access to food (increase competitiveness of smallholder farming, access to markets, decreased unemployment in rural areas, better water management etc.). To start with, access to information and innovation would be good.


After that we should exploit what we have.


See the attached article on how we should plan better.

See the attachment: Rural_Urban_interactions.pdf
Ugo Gentilini WFP, Italy

Dear Participants,

What a great debate and contributions! My name is Ugo Gentilini and I’m social protection specialist at WFP. As a member of the FAO-WFP facilitation team, let me propose a question under theme 3, particularly around the “objectives, targets and indicators will be identified towards tackling hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.” In this regard, one of the objectives put forward by the UN Secretary-General under the Zero Hunger Challenge is to ensure “100% access to adequate food all year round”.

But how to achieve such a key objective? One way could be to strengthen national social protection systems, as advocated by some of you. For example, Todd Post and Scott Bleggi from Bread for the World Institute argued that “the keys to achieving the 2015 targets depend on investments in smallholder agriculture and social protection”.

So let me ask you, what do you think would be the role of social protection to ensure that all people have always access to adequate food? What are some key constraints that governments and their partners may face in providing social protection? And what might be the opportunities?

Looking forward to your views!

Ugo Gentilini,
FAO-WFP facilitation team

Hélène Delisle WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition changes and Development, Canada

Comments on Hunger, Food and Nutrition Security Post 2015 Development Agenda Framework

Thank you for giving us the opportunity to express our views on these topics. However, we cannot organize our comments around the three themes on which inputs were sought.
1.    Global challenges call for global approaches. There is a need for merging or at least converging or consolidating initiatives for post-2015 plan of action. At the present moment, we observe an inflationary trend. Only for insiders is the complexity of plans and consultations understandable. Several consultation processes are going on in a somewhat parallel fashion, on health, on food, on sustainable development. Responding to these separate consultations is not highly productive, and it is not known how the comments are processed. Avoiding the ‘silo’ consultations would be imperative.
The Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN), led by FAO, launched this e-consultation led by FAO, WFP and ‘The World We Want’, on a development agenda framework. Recently, the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) launched another e-consultation on CFS Global Strategic Framework (until October 2012) also through the Global Forum on FSN. Now what is the difference between the ‘Development Agenda Framework’ and the ‘Global Strategic Framework’, if any? The report on comments on the Global Strategic Framework is 98 page-long. How is this consultation to impinge on the present consultation on Hunger, food and nutrition security in the next development agenda framework? The following are just a few more documents that would need to be taken into account if we are to integrate food systems, food (and nutrition) security, and nutrition through the lifecycle, sustainable development, and health in plans, frameworks, objectives, indicators, and targets.
•    On food security and nutrition:
-    The Zero Hunger Challenge – Comprehensive framework for action, by the High Level Task Force on Global Food Security, 2011 (as alluded to in the invited comments);
-    UNSCN Statement on Nutrition Security of Urban Populations (2012);
-    WHO, Draft Comprehensive Implementation Plan, Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (2012);
•    On sustainable development:
-    The Future we Want (2012)
-    Climate change – Food and Nutrition Security Implications (SCN News 2010)  
•    On non-communicable diseases:
-    Global Action Plan for NCDs Zero Draft (2012)
-    Draft Comprehensive Global Monitoring Framework Including Indicators and a set of Voluntary Global Targets (2012)
•    On health and social determinants of health:
-    Health in the Post-2015 Development Agenda (Consultations 2012-3)
-    UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda – Health (UNAIDS, UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, 2012)
-    Outcome of the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio 2011
There has to be some way of integrating these, and nutrition may be a key, as it provides a link between food systems and health. All segments of food systems would have to be considered, as well as the interesting notion of ‘nutrition value chains’ for food systems. Regarding nutrition and health, the lifecycle approach should be revitalized, in order to avoid the current tendency to link undernutrition with maternal and child health, and nutrition-related chronic diseases with ‘adult’ health.

2.    Concepts have to be clear and a shared vision is needed. Food security and nutrition (security) are still not clearly defined and one wonders if consensus is achieved, in spite of a recent report on the terminology, advocating ‘food and nutrition security’. ‘Food security and nutrition’ (not nutrition security) was used in the consultation on CFS Global Strategic Framework. This makes a difference. Nutrition security implies adequate access to health services and a healthy environment. The underlying issue is the negative impact of infection on nutritional status, particularly of children. It is not so relevant for adult nutritional problems, including nutrition-related chronic diseases. ‘Food and nutrition insecurity’ still refers primarily if not exclusively to undernutrition, undernourishment, hunger. The term ‘malnutrition’ continues to mean undernutrition (and specific nutrient deficiencies, ‘hidden hunger’) and not to ‘overnutrition’ (a misnomer), at least for the general public. Furthermore, the concept of food security would have to be broadened to integrate environmental sustainability and social equity, like in the WHO-Europe’s criteria of food security. It is now established that food and nutrition insecurity are also linked with non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition in mothers and in infants, in particular, are a risk factor for these non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adult life. NCDs are no longer associated with affluence, even in low-income countries, and NCDs themselves contribute to poverty. Why not consider the term ‘dysnutrition’ to encompass global undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overnutrition, and dietary imbalance?
3.    A great deal is being said and written about action frameworks, but to our knowledge, no conceptual framework has been proposed to integrate food systems, nutrition and health since the UNICEF produced its causal model of 1990. Can’t this conceptual model be broadened and updated to take into account the new challenges and emerging forms of ‘malnutrition’ (nutrition-related chronic diseases), as well as the environmental issues?

4.    As we already brought up on several occasions, the key importance of high quality professional training of the workforce in nutrition, right in low and middle-income countries has to be more emphasized. If international organizations, NGOs and NGIs are not satisfied with existing university programs, they should strengthen these programs in a coordinated way, instead of having their own informal training activities, which may not be sustainable in the long run. Initial training, continuous education and international accreditation structures (to establish norms and standards) for nutrition training programs would be required. It would be difficult, for instance, to strengthen national nutrition policies and action plans and implement the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health unless more human resources are well trained in nutrition at all levels. Advocacy for health and nutrition promotion also calls for high-level human resources.

5.    The MDGs galvanized the efforts and helped mobilize resources. A new set of development goals is needed for post-2015. The goals that were not achieved should remain. Some others would need to be more explicit, for instance: food and nutrition security; NCDs; education and professional training. Women should continue to be the focus of at least one goal, to improve not only their health and their equality, but also their resources, their well-being and their participation in public life as citizens. We would see the relevance of goals focusing on the following:

-    Agriculture for health, equity and environmental sustainability
-    Governance
-    Protracted crises.

Hélène Delisle, Ph.D., Professor
Head of TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition changes and Development
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal


Any country it may be country with high human fertility or low human fertility country, ensuring self employment through agriculural & livestock productions  at least  to  one member of a vulnerable family with mobile assistance in all aspects to attain our objective of ensuring food all void of malnutrtion. Land availability of vulnerable group shall not be a constrain in ensuring the self employment of agriculural nature in a selected smallest area representing a particular community with appropriate crop and livestock selected for that community.

John Moor Population matters, United Kingdom

The amount of food required for a country depends on the population of that country. For example in Niger, currently suffering hunger, the population is growing very rapidly with a fertility rate ( average number of babies a woman bears) of 7.


The UN should give help in family planning in all countries  which have a high fertility rate.