Consulta electrónica sobre "El hambre y la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional"

19-11-2012 - 10-01-2013

Esta discusión ha sido cerrada.

Véase a continuación las contribuciones recibida o descargue el documento.
El resumen de los temas clave de la discusión está disponible aquí.

Esta es SU OPORTUNIDAD de contribuir a este debate mundial

A medida que se aproxima la fecha fijada por los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODMs), se han puesto en marcha varios procesos para buscar aportaciones a nivel de país, regional y mundial para la “Agenda y marco para el desarrollo después de 2015". Para más información de contexto, haga clic aquí.

Esta es su oportunidad de ayudar a identificar las acciones, objetivos, metas e indicadores necesarios para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional, y la erradicación del hambre, en un mundo después de 2015. En los últimos años se han redactado muchas políticas, estrategias y planes de acción sobre seguridad alimentaria y nutrición. Se han identificado retos y oportunidades para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional en forma sostenible, y muchos países están haciendo progresos notables. Sin embargo, cerca de 870 millones de personas en todo el mundo siguen desnutridas y no tienen acceso a una dieta saludable. Es hora de que todo el mundo tome medidas urgentes -de manera concertada- y elaborar una nueva agenda de desarrollo en torno a las preocupaciones persistentes del hambre, la inseguridad alimentaria y la desnutrición.

El resultado de esta consulta electrónica, junto con la consulta propuesta al CFS, se integrarán en la consulta de alto nivel que será acogida por el Gobierno de España en marzo de 2013.

En última instancia, sus contribuciones se incorporarán a las deliberaciones de la Asamblea General de la ONU a partir de septiembre de 2013 para la elaboración de una agenda acordada de desarrollo mundial después de 2015.

Consulta electrónica: las próximas 4 semanas

Durante las próximas cuatro semanas, la FAO y el PMA facilitarán esta consulta electrónica implicando al grupo más amplio posible de partes interesadas sobre la mejor manera de luchar contra el hambre, la inseguridad alimentaria y la malnutrición a todos los niveles, y para buscar sus aportaciones en la elaboración de una nueva agenda para la acción más allá del marco actual de los ODM.

También le invitamos a presentar ponencias, conclusiones o trabajos en curso sobre el tema del hambre y la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional.

Nos interesan sus contribuciones sobre los tres temas siguientes:

Tema 1:

Cuáles cree usted que son las lecciones clave aprendidas durante el actual Marco de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM) (1990-2015), en particular en relación con los ODM relevantes para el hambre, la inseguridad alimentaria y la desnutrición?

¿Cuáles considera los principales retos y oportunidades para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional en los próximos años?

Tema 2: 

¿Qué funciona mejor? Sobre la base de los conocimientos actuales, díganos por favor cómo deberíamos abordar los desafíos por venir del hambre, la inseguridad alimentaria y la malnutrición. Proporciónenos sus propias experiencias y puntos de vista. Por ejemplo, ¿qué importancia tienen las cuestiones de mejora de la gobernanza, los enfoques basados en los derechos, la responsabilidad y el compromiso político para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición?

Por otra parte, ¿cómo podemos aprovechar mejor las iniciativas en curso, como el Desafío Hambre Cero, lanzado por el Secretario General de la ONU en la Conferencia Río +20 de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Desarrollo Sostenible (www.zerohungerchallenge.org), y el Marco Estratégico Mundial para la Seguridad Alimentaria y la Nutrición elaborado por el CFS?

Tema 3:

Para que el Marco de Desarrollo Global después de 2015 sea completo, global (y regional o nacional), serán identificados objetivos, metas e indicadores para abordar el hambre, la inseguridad alimentaria y la desnutrición. Se ha presentado un conjunto de objetivos por parte del Secretario General en virtud del Desafío Hambre Cero

a. 100% de acceso a una alimentación adecuada durante todo el año
b. Cero niños de menos de 2 años de edad con retraso del crecimiento
c. Todos los sistemas alimentarios son sostenibles
d. 100% de aumento en la productividad e ingresos de los pequeños agricultores
e. Cero pérdida o desperdicio de alimentos.

Le rogamos nos haga llegar sus comentarios sobre esta lista de objetivos, o nos aporte sus propias propuestas. ¿deben algunos de los objetivos ser específicos de cada país, o de carácter regional, más que global? ¿deben de tener los objetivos una duración determinada?

 

Contribuciones recibidas:

Jean Laurent Bungener Consultant, France
27-11-2012

Theme 1:

There are no real progress because scientific ecoligy has not been integrated inside development program. Market and business have dominated the vision of development. Now this is changing. But  to achieve this goal it is important to transform  the key human ressources challenges. using the right people at the right places. Biologist and there systemic vision and multidisciplinary skills have to be formed to manage social, market and agronomic works.

Botanical, zoological and ecosystem knowledge must have the first places, it is on this fundations that human nutrition could be securized. Agroecology is not agronomy, investment should take time into account, and human behaviour would be adapted to natural efficiency. So technology would be adapted to soil ecology, human and animal ressources , and richness of population.

Theme 2

Field size and property rights, peace, and cooperative organisation are the best way to manage self controled action on agroecological system wich are commons. the more actors you have the more controls are done, see water distribution in the alpine swiss countryside.  The next 20 years land use could be a rush for the richer against the poorer(see corea, china ou saoudi arabia in africa)  , protecting the farmer against investor with land rights, high prices and investment is the first goal, the next target is improving there knowledge.

Theme 3

From the rainy contries to the driest the goal couldn't be achieve in the same time,

- Number of biomass produced per acre /year

- liter of water used to produce 1 daily portion for 1 human

- amount of fertilizer, pesticides, and energy used per acre/year

- work force and work time needed for producing 1 ton of cereales/year

- capital gain per acre/year

- index of education

- most common disease/year

 

 

Chencho Norbu Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Bhutan
27-11-2012

Theme 1. :

1. Challenge is how to influence or convince the different sectors or ministries of the government that food and nutrition security is the number one priority  and we all must address it as a team! This is because every head of  the sector or ministry always thinks his/her sector must receive highest prority.. etc. We need to get our policy right!

2. The capacity building is important but in many cases, candidates who go for training are usually not from  implementing agencies or departments.  For example, we need to focus ( capacity building) on our extension and health colleagues who are close to our farmers. We need to shift focus from policy/decision makers to field colleagues. They ( field colleagues) can make difference!

3. We must target awareness, education and advocacy on food and nutrition security at all levels: from politicians to farmers living in remote areas.

4. Food and nutrition insecurity issues are influnced by culture, and local governance/environment. FAO should not come up with precriptive meaures that fits for all!

Theme 2:

1. We must pay attention to sanitation and hygiene issues of our community  while addressing Food and nutrition security. There is no point of addressing issues separately..( currently addressed by two or three ministries in many countries)

2. There is a need to study and understand local food customs to enrich or change old dietry habits. 

3. Communities respond positively to new farming technology if access to market and access to inputs are improved.

4. Access to community postharvest facilities can make a big difference ( prevent from pest and diseases losses).

Theme 3:

1. First we must define our own national, sub-regional or regional targets using existing data from health, trade and agriculture.

2. Using these information, we can project global targets.

3. We also need to think how we can make our small farming more attractive and sustainable given that all cheap food ( subsidies provided by the developed countries)  flooding the  global markets!

Dominic Glover Wageningen University, Netherlands
27-11-2012

I suggest that a key challenge for the post-2015 period is to ensure that there is closer integration of agricultural research and agricultural extension within the agronomy profession, and closer cooperation of both of these functions with small and marginal farmers and rural people themselves.

The aim of agronomic research and extension organisations ought to be transformed from the routine development and dissemination of 'technology packages' in a top-down manner, but working more collaboratively in support of farmers and field-level scientists and technicians (whether from agricultural universities, extension agencies or NGOs/CSOs) to help them analyse, prioritise and address agricultural problems and opportunities at local levels.

This would involve scientific and government agencies working with farmers and rural people in a much more responsive, demand-led, problem-oriented, horizontal manner; where problems are framed and priorities set in sincere collaboration with the people most affected by agricultural challenges.

A target for this proposal could be that x per cent of poor and marginal farmers have real access to/contact with scientific expertise.  Possible indicators should not be in the form of inputs adopted or yields increased, but measures of simultaneously improved productivity (which is an input:output measure, not the same as gross production/yield) and sustainability.

Simon Ross Population Matters, United Kingdom
27-11-2012

The key challenges to food security include rising demand for food, climate change and rising demand for energy, water and land.  All are a consequence of rising per capita consumption and population numbers.  Only by limiting the rise in demand can be guarantee food security.

We should therefore encourage greater equity to allow the poorest to improve their consumption without increasing overall human impact on the environment.  We should also provide universal access to rights based family planning and encourage female employment to reduce the birth rate in all countries to sub replacement levels.

Simon Ross

Population Matters

www.populationmatters.org

Anna Rappazzo FAO, Italy
27-11-2012

In the first week of dialogue, already 22 Participants kicked off the consultation focusing on the lesson learned from the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals of relevance to hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.
MDGs have been recognized for the role they played in bringing development problems to the attention of many. Participants also reminded us of extraordinary success that some countries had in realizing the goals and in increasing food security and nutrition among their citizens. However the same goal is still out of reach in many parts of the world.
MDG are meant be universal and are formulated in a very broad way making them difficult to enforce. Too often success is subject to the political will of national government to tackle food insecurity and malnutrition. Without buy-in by governments and by the population at large, even very active civil society organizations cannot manage to drive the change. The universal nature of the goals also constitutes a strong limitation as countries and regions can be very diverse and global or national goals risk becoming little more than a wish list.
According to the participants, in order to be successful , development objectives need to be linked closely to the local realities and need to be developed following a bottom up approach. For this to take place, awareness needs to be built among the general population starting in school and local professionals need to be put in the position to apply the acquired skills in their regional context.
As the central government often does not enjoy the full trust of the citizens it is important to involve civil society and grassroots organizations as much as possible, making the formulation of the development agenda respectful of the local peculiarities such as the environment and traditional agricultural practices.
Some participants also proposed a global food policy and more binding legal frameworks such as the creation of an expanded Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights or of a binding food treaty, which would create clearer obligation for the states.
Consensus emerged that hunger needs to be tackled in a comprehensive way including livelihoods, health, habits, infrastructure, education, gender equality, etc. and resources from all involved actors need to converge on a common practical plan of action.
Safety nets to mitigate shocks need to be put in place to increase the resilience of food insecure people and food should also be treated differently from other commodities and preferential trade arrangement could be put in place to increase access by the poor.
Participants also identified a decent infrastructure and safe storage facilities, which allow producers to efficiently access local markets with their produce as a condition for increasing food security .
Here national parliaments can play an important role by making sure that public policy measures aimed at rural developing and social protection find their way into national government budgets.
I take the occasion to thank all participants for their contributions and to renew my encouragement to further participate in the discussion.
In particular participants may wish to further address the following specific questions:
1.    Considering that several comments highlighted how Malnutrition and Food insecurity should be addressed in a integrated and comprehensive way, which are the main challenges in enabling this approach to be enforced? How different stake-holders could and should contribute to this effort?
2.    Which are the main lessons learned national levels to be used as a basis for building the future framework so that it fully reflects local realities and strengths?
3.    How can we use current initiatives, including the Zero Hunger Challenge, launched by the UN Secretary General at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (www.zerohungerchallenge.org), and the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition elaborated by the CFS ?
We look forward to receiving your contributions
Anna Rappazzo
WFP/FAO facilitators team
 

Becky Jebet BEACON , Kenya
27-11-2012

My suggestion

1.0 Supporting small scale farmers through farmer education/extension services

2.0 Increasing governments budgets to above 10% as in the Maputo Declaration of 2012 for extension services and input subsidies to small scale farmers

3.0 Landlessness and land fragmentation as a challenge that needs to be addressed among the small scale farmers

4.0 Governments should support research into ecologically adaptable seeds especially in Africa

Piero Conforti FAO , Italy
27-11-2012

Current UN projections indicate that world population could increase by more than two billion people from today’s levels, reaching 9.15 billion by 2050. Incomes will grow even faster. To meet increased demand, FAO projects that global agricultural production and consumption in 2050 will be 60 percent higher than in 2005/07. This is a smaller increase than the agriculture sector has achieved over the past half century; but it still poses a main challenge in terms of how it can be achieved sustainably.

Population and income growth will spur demand, but significant parts of the world will approach saturation of per capita consumption levels. Demand will increase in both developed and developing countries, even where current levels appear adequate and additional growth may cause health concerns. This may happen even in countries where undernourishment remains significant. By 2050, some 52 percent of the world’s population may live in countries where average calorie intake is more than 3 000 kcal/person/day, but the total number undernourished is expected to be still 318 million or 4 percent of world population in 2050. Many countries will have to face a double burden, of under-nourishment and mal-nourishment.

How is production expected to respond to this demand-side picture and what are the opportunities to be leveraged on that side? More than 85 percent of the expected increase in production by 2050 may derive from improved yields. Higher yields and cropping intensity are economically preferable, given competition for land for other uses; and yield growth has been the mainstay of historic production increases. Spare land, instead, is often not readily accessible due to lack of infrastructure and is concentrated in a small number of countries. Water is another critical resource, that contributed much to past yield production growth. While water resources are globally abundant, they are extremely scarce in the Near East and North Africa, and in northern China, where they are most needed.

Yields increases can raise income from farming, provided that adequate signals are transmitted through markets; and that the policy and market environment in which farmers operate is conducive. At the same time, they need to be achieved with sustainable and climate-smart practices, to avoid increasing the pressure of agriculture on natural resources. In several regions of the world there is room to increase factor productivity and incomes from agriculture without exerting additional pressure on natural resources. Investment in research and extension, however, must pursue these objectives, probably with more efforts compared to what has happened over the last decades.

More information at http://www.fao.org/economic/esa/esag/en

27-11-2012

The Hunger, Food and Nutrition Security is a serious issues globally, somehow all this is related with poverty. Urgent action is required by both the Government and development partners, to ensure that immediate food security, combined with longer term growth in agricultural production, becomes critical and sustained prioritization. To overcome the challenges identified, the four key are of; agricultural production; trade and marketing; economic development; safety nets; and nutrition should become the focus of a comprehensive long term food security plan for all insecure population of the hunger. Eliminating hunger involves investments in agriculture, rural development, decent work, social protection and equality of opportunities. It makes a major contribution to peace and stability and to the reduction of poverty. It will contribute to better food, nutrition for all.

Roldán Gonzalo Argentina
27-11-2012

En primer lugar mis más sinceros saludos desde Argentina.  Creo que debemos repensar cada uno de los programas y acciones entendiendo que el cambio debe ser estructural. Desde el cambio climático, que afecta a todos, pero principalmente a las poblaciones más pobres, hasta entender que debemos acompañar a todos los programas de desarrollos sostenibles con acciones concretas que soluciones problemas concretos en el presente. Creo que este debería ser el punto de partida para llevar adelante acciones concretas a la par del fomento de proyectos, como podría ser el programa que se lleva adelante e mí país que es Prohuerta.

Saludos con afecto.

Profesor Gonzalo Roldán  

Theme 1

Lessons Learned:

  1. One of the key lessons learned during the current MDG framework, as it relates to hunger, food security and malnutrition is the fact that each country has its own capacities, constraints and challenges. Ending poverty requires setting ambitious targets in each country, but a “one size fits all” target is senseless when countries have vastly different starting points. With each country at a different point at the time of implementation, some countries were at the desired objective while to some it was impossible.
  2. The goals were designed using a ‘Top down approach’ and hence the inputs of those directly affected by hunger and poverty were ignored.
  3. Another lesson learned, especially in developing countries is that the measurements for the progress of the goals require extensive quantitative information which are, in some, cases unavailable and in others, inaccurate.

Future challenges:

  1. If strict regulations are not in place regarding the quality of food produced, the expansion of food production may result in the use of harmful chemicals to enhance quantity produced.
  2. Secondly, if countries are not careful of population growth, future food security and hunger reduction faces a tremendous challenge. This is so because if the population and food production are growing at the same rate, ceteris paribus, there will be no significant reduction in the number of people faced with hunger and malnutrition.
  3. Thirdly, with alternative uses of food (as inputs to the manufacturing of other goods, for example fuel), this leaves less for consumption and hence the challenge to food security.

Recently, there has been much talk of labour mobility from agricultural sector to other sectors. This could be a positive move if the movement is merely the surplus labour in the agricultural sector. However, it is very likely that much needed labour is transferred to other sectors. It has been observed that this is largely due to the mentality that agriculture is somewhat a socially degrading occupation and fewer entrants to the labour force wish to be agriculturally involved /employed.

Future opportunities:

The vast literature on agricultural based countries indicates that those countries are less developed. With the growing demand for agricultural production, due to the MDG food security agreement will help develop those small agrarian countries. It provides them with comparative advantage and also provides them with a favorable trade balance.