Re: The e-Consultation on Hunger, Food and Nutrition Security

This brief document is part of the Spanish position paper regarding post2015 development agenda process. It includes core messages and concerns for the Government of Spain on food and nutrition security.



a) Key lessons learned during the current MDGs Framework, in particular in relation to the MDGs relevance to Hunger, Food insecurity and Malnutrition.


  • The main lesson of MDGs is MDGs themselves as the first global common agenda for development setting time-bound targets resulting from years of debates and discussions within global community.
    MDGs relevance and usefulness are rooted in the availability of a common global framework that allow programmes, resource management, coordination, harmonization, alignment and, as a consequence, effectiveness.
  • Nevertheless, one of the main weaknesses of current MDGs is that they are quantitative outcome-focused objectives and nor qualitative outputs nor process are formally considered. When talking about sustainable development results, process is as relevant as the results themselves. Future development agenda should, thus, consider setting process indicators.
  • Development goals cannot be approached individually but as a whole, since the achievement of each and all of them will conduct peoples towards development. An individual approach might guide development process towards a short-term progress accounting for a short group of individuals.


b) What do you consider the main challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in the coming years?


  • There is a core difference between 2000 when MDGs were set and now. Political will regarding development, and particularly regarding Hunger and Food Insecurity has risen and development has become an international policy issue high top in the agendas. This is, thus, a very challenging situation.
  • Efforts regarding food and nutrition security have been fostered worldwide latest years i.e. the renewed Committee on Global Food Security, the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the Right to adequate Food in the context of the national food security, the Voluntary Guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food security, the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP), the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) or the working group within the G20 amongst others. These efforts concreted in different initiatives should be considered as a cornerstone for the future development agenda as regards food and nutrition security. Lessons learned from above mentioned and others are a very good input to start from since most of them are the outcome of participatory and inclusive processes that have been fed with experiences at country level.
  • Effectiveness is definitely the main challenge for future development agenda. In this respect, the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation is the reference post2015 development agenda should be built upon since it provides the tool on the “HOW” we should work on development. Effectiveness will allow sustainable results and according to development effectiveness principles.
  • Another challenge is the sustainable use of natural resources and how to prevent climate change and mitigate its effects especially in agriculture.


THEME 2. a) What works best? What we should go about addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on?


  • 3 out 4 food insecure people depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their living. It is also important to add that 75% of people suffering from abject poverty live in rural areas. This people devote 60-80% of their income to buy food.
  • Following the WB’s WDR 2008, agriculture is both a way for achieving food security and household income, which are the two dimensions of MDG 1: poverty and hunger. That is the paradox of hunger, that most hungry people are food producers, small-farmers. It should be clearly stated that any development goal regarding hunger reduction should be considered simultaneously in its two dimensions, as progress in food and nutrition security may in some cases deepen rural poverty for the rural poor if their participation on the provision of food security is not ensured. In this regard, agriculture development by smallholders may contribute to economic growth and substantially to poverty reduction.
  • Combining measures of improvement of livelihoods within vulnerable groups and risk prevention and management actions would result in better food and nutrition security indicators.
  • Figures and reports conclude that same groups and same places periodically suffer food insecurity due to their vulnerability to shocks comprising their permanent access to adequate food, compromising the realization of the right to food.
  • Determining proper targets and indicators require a proper identification and classification of vulnerable groups as well as the causes of their vulnerability.
  • In this regard, local or community-based food and nutrition insecurity surveillance systems contribute to prevent critical situation within vulnerable groups.
  • Social protection systems have demonstrated their positive impact in reducing vulnerability and strengthening resilience among vulnerable groups. Strategic food reserves as part of safety nets provide an opportunity for small producers as food providers as long as they avoid spoiling local markets.


THEME 3. a) Please provide us with your feedback on the list of objectives- or provide your own proposals. Should some objectives be country-specific, or regional, rather than global? Should the objectives be time-bound?


  • The future development agenda should adopt a rights based approach. Rights based approach means focusing on the most vulnerable, adopting human rights principles: participation, non discrimination, transparency, accountability. The right to food approach means that the main goal of food security is the realization of the human right to adequate food for every man, woman and child wherever and whenever.
  • Hunger Zero Challenge makes reference to women linked to nutrition. However, women’s role in food and nutrition security goes far beyond. Women make the difference as providers of food security at household and national level since However, women situation regarding food and nutrition security relates to access and control of productive resources like land, credit or technology.
  • Development agenda- objectives and targets- must be country-specific and country-driven. In this respect, targets and indicators should be defined locally, regionally and nationally. Global outcomes cannot undercover local situations. For example, hunger MDG at global level looks better that looking country-by country since figures in India or China have a high impact in global absolute figures.
See the attachment: Comments MoFAC Spain.pdf