Consultation en ligne sur la Faim et la Sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle

19-11-2012 - 10-01-2013

Cette discussion est fermée.

Voir ci-dessous la contribution reçue ou téléchargez le document.
Le résumé des thèmes clés de la discussion est disponible ici

Voici votre L'OCCASION de contribuer à ce débat à l'échelon mondial

À mesure que se rapproche la date fixée pour la réalisation des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD), plusieurs processus ont été mis en place pour chercher à recueillir des contributions aux échelons national, régional et mondial, dans le cadre du « Programme  de développement pour l'après-2015 ».  Pour en savoir plus sur le contexte, veuillez cliquer ici.

Cette consultation vous permettra de contribuer à définir les mesures, les objectifs, les buts et les indicateurs requis pour parvenir à la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle et éradiquer la faim après 2015.  De nombreuses politiques, stratégies et plans d'action ont été élaborées en matière de sécurité alimentaire et de nutrition au cours des dernières années.  Les défis et les opportunités dans la réalisation de la sécurité alimentaire nutritionnelle de façon durable ont été détectés et de nombreux pays accomplissent des progrès notables.  Et pourtant, près de 870 millions de personnes dans le monde entier continuent de souffrir de la sous-alimentation et  n'ont pas accès à un régime alimentaire sain.  Il est temps que chacun d'entre nous prenne des mesures urgentes, de manière concertée, et élabore un nouveau programme de développement qui aborde les problèmes persistants de la faim, de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition.

Les résultats de cette consultation virtuelle, ainsi que la consultation proposée du CSA, contribueront à la préparation de la consultation de haut niveau qui sera accueillie par le gouvernement espagnol en mars 2013.

Finalement, vos contributions seront également communiquées à l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies à l'occasion des débats qui commenceront en septembre 2013 pour élaborer un programme mondial de développement pour l'après 2015 qui soit commun à tous.

Consultation en ligne – les 4 semaines à venir

Au cours des quatre prochaines semaines, la FAO et le PAM vont faciliter cette consultation virtuelle en faisant appel au plus grand nombre possible de parties prenantes et de parties intéressées et leur demander quelle est la meilleure façon de s'attaquer aux problèmes de la faim, à l'insécurité alimentaire et à la malnutrition à tous les niveaux et solliciteront vos contributions quant à l'élaboration d’un nouveau programme d'action qui aille au-delà du cadre actuel des OMD.

Nous vous invitons à présenter des articles, des résultats ou une recherche en cours sur le thème de la faim et de la sécurité alimentaire nutritionnelle.

Nous souhaiterions recevoir vos opinions sur les trois thèmes suivants:

Thème 1:

Quels sont, à votre avis, les principaux enseignements qui peuvent être tirés du Cadre (1990-2015) des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement (OMD), en particulier en ce qui concerne les OMD liés à la faim, à la sécurité alimentaire et à la malnutrition ?  

Quels sont, à votre avis, les principaux défis et opportunités pour parvenir à garantir la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle dans les années à venir?

Thème 2:

Quelles sont les mesures les plus efficaces? Sur la base des connaissances existantes, veuillez nous signaler quelles seraient les mesures les plus efficaces pour s'attaquer aux problèmes de la faim, de la sécurité alimentaire et de la malnutrition dans l’avenir.  Faites-nous part de vos propres expériences et de vos observations.  Par exemple, quelle importance attribuez-vous aux questions de l'amélioration de la gouvernance, des approches fondées sur les droits, de la responsabilisation et de l'engagement politique pour assurer la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle?  

Par ailleurs, comment pouvons-nous tirer le meilleur parti possible des initiatives actuelles, telles que le Défi Faim Zéro, lancé par le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies à la Conférence Rio+20 des Nations Unies sur le développement durable  (www.zerohungerchallenge.org) et le Cadre stratégique mondial sur la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition élaboré par le CSA ?

Thème 3:

Pour assurer le déploiement intégral du  Programme  de développement pour l'après-2015 aux échelon mondial, régional ou national, il faut définir des objectifs, des buts et des indicateurs pour aborder les problèmes de la faim, de l'insécurité alimentaire et de la malnutrition.  Un ensemble d'objectifs a été proposé par le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies dans le cadre du Défi Faim zéro:
a.    100 % d’accès à une alimentation adéquate toute l’année
b.    Zéro enfant de moins de deux ans souffrant d’un retard de croissance
c.    Tous les systèmes agro-alimentaires sont durables
d.    100 % d’augmentation de la productivité et des revenus des petits exploitants
e.    Zéro perte ou gaspillage de produits alimentaires

Veuillez nous faire part de vos observations sur cette liste d'objectifs ou formuler vos propres propositions.  Certains de ces objectifs doivent-ils être propres aux pays, ou à l'échelle régionale, plutôt que mondiale? Les objectifs doivent-ils être limités dans le temps?

 

Contributions reçues :

Comentarios de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público de México a la consulta electrónica sobre "El hambre y la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional"

En lo que se refiere a la pregunta ¿Cuáles considera los principales retos y oportunidades para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional en los próximos años? contemplada en el primer tema de la presente consulta, en el marco del G20 México ha planteado que es necesario atacar los siguientes grandes campos para alcanzar la seguridad alimentaria:

  • - Incrementar la producción y productividad agrícola
  • - Asegurar la sostenibilidad de la producción agrícola
  • - Adaptación al cambio climático
  • - Atención a la Volatilidad de los Precios de Materias Primas

En segundo lugar, respecto al cuestionamiento contenido en el tema 2, acerca de qué funciona mejor y teniendo como base los conocimientos actuales, al responder cómo deberían abordarse los desafíos por venir del hambre, la inseguridad alimentaria y la malnutrición, así como hablando de la importancia que tienen las cuestiones de mejora de la gobernanza, los enfoques basados en los derechos, la responsabilidad y el compromiso político para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición, México está convencido de la importancia de la seguridad alimentaria para lograr un crecimiento sostenido e inclusivo.

Nuestro país destaca el incremento de la productividad y de la producción, así como el mejoramiento del funcionamiento y la transparencia de los mercados de materias primas, como las mejores políticas para fortalecer la seguridad alimentaria y para reducir tanto la volatilidad excesiva de los precios de materias primas, como los efectos negativos de dicha volatilidad sobre la economía y el bienestar de la población. Durante la Presidencia Mexicana del G20 en 2012 se estableció como prioridad en la agenda el tema “Fortalecimiento de la Seguridad Alimentaria y Atención a la Volatilidad de los Precios de Materias Primas”.

Algunas experiencias que vale la pena destacar en torno al tema, son los principales compromisos establecidos por los Líderes del G20 en la Cumbre de Los Cabos:

  • - Los líderes dieron la bienvenida al lanzamiento de la Iniciativa “AgResults”, encaminada a alentar la inversión en la innovación agrícola mediante el diseño de incentivos financieros para agentes de los sectores público y privado para investigar, desarrollar y proveer productos y servicios destinados a mejorar la agricultura de pequeños productores agrícolas. Además, se comprometieron a dar continuidad a distintas iniciativas del G20, incluyendo la Plataforma de Agricultura Tropical (cuyo objetivo es fortalecer la construcción de capacidades y el intercambio de conocimiento en material agrícola), iniciativas de investigación para cultivos de trigo, arroz y Unidad de Asuntos Internacionales de Hacienda maíz, y el Programa Global de Agricultura y Seguridad Alimentaria (que tiene como propósito atender la escasez de financiamiento para los planes estratégicos de inversión en agricultura y seguridad alimentaria de los países).
  •  
  • - Los Líderes apoyaron los Principios de Inversión Agrícola Responsable y alentaron la implementación de la Guía Voluntaria sobre Gobernanza Responsable de Tenencia Agrícola, Pesquera y Forestal en un Contexto de Seguridad Alimentaria Nacional. Asimismo, reconocieron la aportación del reporte “Crecimiento Sostenible de la Productividad Agrícola y Reducción de Brechas para Pequeños Agricultores”, elaborado por distintas agencias y el cual contiene recomendaciones en las cuales los países podrían enfocar sus esfuerzos de cooperación.
  •  
  • - Los líderes apoyaron el desarrollo y mayor uso de tecnologías, mejores prácticas y técnicas agroforestales, mejoramiento de la fertilidad de los suelos y labranza mínima, entre otras. Asimismo, hicieron un llamado a las Organizaciones Internacionales para elaborar un informe sobre opciones para mejorar la eficiencia en el uso de agua en la agricultura.
  •  
  • - Los Líderes acogieron el progreso hecho en la implementación del Sistema de Información del Mercado Agrícola (AMIS, por sus siglas en inglés). Este mecanismo ayudará a crear un sistema de intercambio de productos agrícolas más estable, predecible, libre de distorsiones, abierto y transparente, lo cual a su vez ayudará a fortalecer la seguridad alimentaria. Los Líderes además apoyaron las conclusiones del Reporte del G20 sobre Impactos Macroeconómicos de la Volatilidad Excesiva de los Precios de Materias Primas, el cual identifica distintos efectos de cambios bruscos en los precios de materias primas, así como opciones de política que los países podrían considerar para mitigar tanto la volatilidad en precios como sus consecuencias. Los Líderes del G20 solicitaron a los Ministros de Finanzas informar en 2013 sobre el progreso en la contribución del G20 para facilitar un mejor funcionamiento de los mercados físicos de materias primas, y reafirmaron su compromiso para incrementar la transparencia y evitar el abuso en los mercados financieros de dichos bienes. Finalmente, los Líderes también reafirmaron su compromiso con mercados de energía transparentes y efectivos.
14-12-2012

Theme1:

I think that targets should be evaluated in a short term, not more than 10-12 years, and revised it frequently.

The challenge in the coming years is related with the growing number of population, the production methods to cover these needs, and the sustainability of growth. This 3 issues linked to each other will probably determine achieving food and nutrition security.

 

Theme2:

To address the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges, country level political awarness is needed. The question is, does politicians are interested in this challenges? are they fully aware?.

Global initiatives are interesting I hope they are really focus on country needs.

 

Theme3:

I think globally main objectives need to be address, however, specific indicators should be country-specific.

Kevin MORGAN Cardiff University, United Kingdom
13-12-2012

Key lessons from MDG framework?

 

Lack of political commitment from governments and neglect of the gender dimension. Key challenge for the future of food and nutrition security? Sufficient political commitment from governments.

 

What works best? Social safety nets in the short term to ensure sufficient access to food and nutrition security. In the longer term there is no substitute to investment in smallholder agriculture, organisational learning through producer associations and better infrastructure for producing, storage and distribution'to boost output and reduce wastage.

 

Post 2015 targets? Who can have confidence in any target, promise or commitment from any government given the way the right to food has been consistently violated? Governments need to earn credibility on the food security front before they expect citizens to take their targets seriously.

Patrick Webb Tufts University, United States of America
13-12-2012

Regarding theme 3 on targets and indicators, I wholeheartedly agree with a target such as 'b' framed around zero stunting under 2.  That is arguably, the highest priorty overall in nutrition going forward, viable, and if done correctly, sustainable.  It does, of course, require child stunting to be a primary indicator, which all the implications that carries in terms of cost, training, and reporting--but I sense that the global community is ready for that to happen.

 

That said, stunting of children older than 2 needs to be tracked (so the indicator should arguably call for height for age to be collected and reported for <5s, with <2s separated out, and by gender).  What is more, there needs to be a parallel focus on some additional, equally critical elements of the nutrition problem which can't be assumed away by a single-minded focus on the 1,000 days.  These would include: a) key micronutrient deficiencies, b) childhood obesity, c) maternal nutrition and IUGR, and d) wasting (treatment as well as prevention).  Yes, these overlap with stunting, but not fully and not consistently--and success in achieving zero stunting in children under 2 can be compromised where these other dimensions are not addressed simultaneously.

 

The approach taken should therefore be one focused on net gains across these key dimensions of nutrition, not gross gains in one area at the expense of, or without, gains in each of the others.

Mike Matsimbe Malawi
13-12-2012

I know that alot of people have discussed food security so I just want to add something on dealing with Malnutrition especially in relation to the issue of stunting. I believe if we could concentrate on animal protein intake boosting in countries like malawi we could reduce stunting and other nutrient difiency related problems. There is quite high intake of Carbohydrates and vegitables but very minimal on the animal protein. If the food security intervention were around small animals which could be easily consumed at household level then children would also benefited. Let interventions in the next period incorporate this.

Mahadeva Shanmugaratnam UN/FAO Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
13-12-2012

Dear Friends,

 

It has been a quite interesting and a learning processing to read all the contributions, I as well posted my contribution on 11/12/2012 which  I feel needs further elaboration in order to emphasize the need of a grass-root level planning that addresses the issues from bottom to top rather than that goes from top to bottom. 

 

"Any country it may be country with high human fertility or low human fertility country, ensuring self-employment through agricultural & livestock productions at least to one member of a vulnerable family with mobile assistance in all aspects to attain our objective of ensuring food all void of malnutrition. Land availability of vulnerable group shall not be a constraint in ensuring the self- employment of agricultural nature in a selected smallest area representing a particular community with appropriate crop and livestock selected for that community"

 

Further elaborating on this, the major limitation in implementing of such a self-employment agricultural & livestock and project for a particular community is lack of self-owned land by the vulnerable families.  

 

If a vulnerable family is owning a land could not involve in self-reliance for food production for other reasons such as lack of irrigation and other inputs necessary for the farming, the mobile unit moves into address the needs of that particular family on short term basis as well as  on long term basis. The important part is that particular vulnerable family is inducted and induced into the project at the earliest possible disseminating the knowledge needed by them.  

 

When it comes landless vulnerable families, which is obviously the most vulnerable group for hunger and malnutrition community farming system is undertaken to address the 10 to 15 land less families selected to be assisted by an organization or by the government itself of an famine vulnerable country to lease a land on a long term basis and the self-employment agricultural project implemented as for the self-owned land families. One or two members of a vulnerable family will work in that particular community farm based on the size of the land that would support conspicuously more than the number of individual members of families the community farming system is intended for. The assistance providing mobile organization will bear in mind that this is a self-employment project apart from addressing food need and malnutrition will establish a cooperative system within the community farming system so that produces and output are evenly distributed amongst the member families.

 

Based on the success of a particular community farming system, the cooperation criteria will be extended to the other community farming systems as well with individual self-owned farming system

 

The objective of this elaboration is to stress the need of grass-root level planning towards the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition and Zero Hunger Challenge.

 

The need of a Vulnerable Family who is most likely to involve dedicatedly in such projects , a community of vulnerable families, a village of vulnerable communities and finally many villages of a country is addressed which ensures gradual control over what is done and what is not done towards the final objectives in a country through an organization.

12-12-2012

Je salue cette initiative, qui occasionne le moment d'echanger sur comment nourrir les habitats de notre planète.

 

A l'état actuel du développement technologique et des avancés en matière des droits de l'homme. il est impensable et déplorable que de milliers de personnes particulièrement d'enfants meurent chaque jour par la faim ou de la malnutrition. je considère cela comme une honte pour l'humanité. j'ai été témoin dans ma vie de militant des droits de l'homme, de plus de trois hommes chefs de ménages qui sont donné la mort parce que qu'ils étaient incapables de trouver la nourriture pour ses enfants et leurs femmes. ça c'est passé au Burundi en 1999 dans une province du Nord dénommé Kirundo, il y avait la famine causée par la sécheresse. Nourrir le monde et lutter contre la faim est à la fois facile et complexe:

1. Gouvernance mondiale opérationnelle et exigeant à tout les etats et mettre en place un mécanisme de contrôle efficace

2. Reformer la FAO pour plus d'efficacité sur le terrain;

3. Faire la question de lutte contre la faim, un axe transversal dans les planifications UNDAF et DSRP dans tous le pays;

4. Adopter une stratégie internationale pour changer systématiquement les méthodes agricoles, l'actualisations régulières des intrants et la fertilisations des sols;

5. Adopter une stratégie d'échanges bilatérales et / ou multilatérales des cultures;

6. Créer des fonds, des lignes budgétaires etc. pour promouvoir l'agriculture, la transformation; bref promouvoir les industries alimentaires

 

Materne Maetz France
12-12-2012

 

Dear all,

 

I have been following with great interest the discussion.

 

My feeling is that we tend to give too much emphasis to the technical aspects of food security and neglect the political side of the issue. We also tend to mix the two very different questions of i) reducing - now eradicating - hunger and ii) producing sufficiently for all.

 

On the first point, we have to realize that the conditions in countries have been

- in favor of agriculture in rich countries (e.g. farmers better represented politically and well organized to defend their interests; consumers are ready to pay relatively high food prices as food only represents a small share in their expenditure; subsidies for agriculture affordable because of reduced share of agriculture in the economy)

- unfavorable in poor countries (farmers have no political weight on political regimes that for long have been undemocratic, they are disorganized and cannot influence policies, agriculture is a big share of GDP and costly to subsidies; liberalized policies imposed through structural adjustment programmes have been prevented to change because of WTO membership; food is a big share in household expenditure in urban areas where they can put pressure on governments through demonstrations; the option of food aid has given a disincentives to governments to invest limited funds into agriculture).

 

This has resulted on the one hand in high subsidies and protection for agriculture in rich countries, and poor support in non industrial countries. The limited support and services available for farmers in poor countries are benefitting to few better off farmers, while the majority of farmers, those who are the most food insecure, have been excluded

 

So for me the main challenge, to reduce hunger, is to find a way to include these people so that they can improve their standard of living. 2012 is the international year of cooperatives, but while it is said that 1 billion out of the 1.4 billion farmers are part of cooperatives or groupings, we have to admit sadly that most of these groupings are either non-functional or dominated by the local rural elite and do not operate in favour of the smaller farmers. So this is an area where support is needed as, if better organized, farmers can be stronger on markets, get access to cheaper equipment/inputs, be influential on policies. There are of course good experiences to learn from, and we need to apply lessons from them. Authentic democracy can also help to change the political balance that is unfavorable to farmers by giving them opportunity to propel representative leaders to Parliament and/or Government.

We also need to do more for those rural dwellers (particularly the land less) to have more job opportunities or less trouble in migrating to urban areas, where towns can offer jobs.

 

Regarding the two questions (hunger, more production), there is clearly a need to continue increasing production. But not in any way:

First we need to use more environmental friendly technologies.

- Second they should be easily accessible to poor farmers.

 

That requires more funds for independent public research (private research seeks to produce goods that can be sold and that are given characteristics of private goods - exclusion in particular - such as fertilizers, pesticides, hybrid or GMO seeds/ public researchers financed by private firms tend to develop what these firms want). Research has proven to be the most profitable investment in agriculture. Independent public research should focus on crop/animal management that is labour-based (a key asset of poor farmers), knowledge intensive (a potentially public good) and requires limited purchased inputs (poor farmers do not have cash to buy them). In this way, improved technology kill two birds with one stone (although I don’t think we should kill birds...): be at the same time more friendly to poor farmers and to the environment.

 

 

Unfortunately, when people start thinking increased production, they tend to think that we should do more of what we are already doing (input intensive agriculture, work with larger commercial farms). That may help to reach the 70% target of increasing world production, but at a huge and intolerable environmental and social cost!

 

Furthermore, I am not sure that we really need to increase food production by 70% as we have now more food today than what we need of feed the world and that more than 1/4 of what is produced is wasted or lost. Part of the discussion is also the need to adopt food consumption patterns (less meat in particular, less waste) which will have less of an ecological foot print and be more healthy.

 

I stop here for now. For those who read French, I invite you to have a look at my website www.lafaimexpliquee.org  for more information.

 

Regards to all,

 

Materne

Maria Sfarra FAO - WFP Facilitation Team, Italy
12-12-2012

Undernutrition entails huge economic costs in terms of forgone gross domestic product (GDP).  For example, a study titled “The Cost of Hunger” estimated that, in Central America and Dominican Republic, the costs stemming from child undernutrition were about US$ 6.7 billion, or more than 6 per cent of countries’ GDP. The study, jointly produced by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and WFP, is available at http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/9/32669/DP_CostHunger.pdf.

 

While these statistics are grim news, they also show the strong connection between child under-nutrition and economic growth.  From this perspective, how can we ensure that these linkages are recognized and measured in the post-2015 agenda?

 

Maria Sfarra

FAO-WFP Facilitation Team

John Baaki Women Environmenal Programme, Nigeria
12-12-2012

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF ACHIEVING FOOD SECURITY AFTER 2015 The Millenium Development Goals expire 2015 but national governments with their economies continue to exist beyond that. Whether the MDGs will be renewed or given another name entirely, the goal will still be similar to what we have at present. The very first goal of the MDGs which seeks to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty is a goal that will be pursued as long as people continue to dwell on the planet earth. Achieving food security is putting the right structures in place that will ensure the production, processing and distribution of the right type, quantity and quality of food. In as much as everyone eats food, the duty of ensuring food security is that of national governments. The major area I see as a great challenge and which will be a good opportunity for food security is the development of rural infrastructure. More than half of the food produced in any developing country is produced in the rural areas. The youths and women make up to 70% of the farming population in Nigeria for example. Unfortunatly recently, there is mass migration of the youths from the rural areas to urban areas to take up non agricultural profession leaving agriculture in the hands of the aged. This is evident in the fall in food production and exportation recently than compared to what was obtainable in the 1960s-1980s. Government programs on agriculture do not address the rural areas seriously, hence the sustained migration. My opinion as a development worker working with women and youths in the rural areas is that, food security programs should not dwell on provision of farm equipment and seeds or training and incentives alone. Any food security program or policy that does not target the development of critical rural infrastructure is bound to fail. In my opinion, if rural areas are opened up alone, every other aspect of food security will naturally take shape. In addition to that, agro-processing industries should be located in rural areas to give value to their produce. This is the only thing that will keep the farming population back in the rural areas. Develp rural infrastructure and every other thing will follow if food security must be achieved