Consultation en ligne sur la Faim et la Sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle

19-11-2012 - 10-01-2013

Cette discussion est fermée.

Voir ci-dessous la contribution reçue ou téléchargez le document.
Le résumé des thèmes clés de la discussion est disponible ici

Voici votre L'OCCASION de contribuer à ce débat à l'échelon mondial

À mesure que se rapproche la date fixée pour la réalisation des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD), plusieurs processus ont été mis en place pour chercher à recueillir des contributions aux échelons national, régional et mondial, dans le cadre du « Programme  de développement pour l'après-2015 ».  Pour en savoir plus sur le contexte, veuillez cliquer ici.

Cette consultation vous permettra de contribuer à définir les mesures, les objectifs, les buts et les indicateurs requis pour parvenir à la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle et éradiquer la faim après 2015.  De nombreuses politiques, stratégies et plans d'action ont été élaborées en matière de sécurité alimentaire et de nutrition au cours des dernières années.  Les défis et les opportunités dans la réalisation de la sécurité alimentaire nutritionnelle de façon durable ont été détectés et de nombreux pays accomplissent des progrès notables.  Et pourtant, près de 870 millions de personnes dans le monde entier continuent de souffrir de la sous-alimentation et  n'ont pas accès à un régime alimentaire sain.  Il est temps que chacun d'entre nous prenne des mesures urgentes, de manière concertée, et élabore un nouveau programme de développement qui aborde les problèmes persistants de la faim, de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition.

Les résultats de cette consultation virtuelle, ainsi que la consultation proposée du CSA, contribueront à la préparation de la consultation de haut niveau qui sera accueillie par le gouvernement espagnol en mars 2013.

Finalement, vos contributions seront également communiquées à l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies à l'occasion des débats qui commenceront en septembre 2013 pour élaborer un programme mondial de développement pour l'après 2015 qui soit commun à tous.

Consultation en ligne – les 4 semaines à venir

Au cours des quatre prochaines semaines, la FAO et le PAM vont faciliter cette consultation virtuelle en faisant appel au plus grand nombre possible de parties prenantes et de parties intéressées et leur demander quelle est la meilleure façon de s'attaquer aux problèmes de la faim, à l'insécurité alimentaire et à la malnutrition à tous les niveaux et solliciteront vos contributions quant à l'élaboration d’un nouveau programme d'action qui aille au-delà du cadre actuel des OMD.

Nous vous invitons à présenter des articles, des résultats ou une recherche en cours sur le thème de la faim et de la sécurité alimentaire nutritionnelle.

Nous souhaiterions recevoir vos opinions sur les trois thèmes suivants:

Thème 1:

Quels sont, à votre avis, les principaux enseignements qui peuvent être tirés du Cadre (1990-2015) des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement (OMD), en particulier en ce qui concerne les OMD liés à la faim, à la sécurité alimentaire et à la malnutrition ?  

Quels sont, à votre avis, les principaux défis et opportunités pour parvenir à garantir la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle dans les années à venir?

Thème 2:

Quelles sont les mesures les plus efficaces? Sur la base des connaissances existantes, veuillez nous signaler quelles seraient les mesures les plus efficaces pour s'attaquer aux problèmes de la faim, de la sécurité alimentaire et de la malnutrition dans l’avenir.  Faites-nous part de vos propres expériences et de vos observations.  Par exemple, quelle importance attribuez-vous aux questions de l'amélioration de la gouvernance, des approches fondées sur les droits, de la responsabilisation et de l'engagement politique pour assurer la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle?  

Par ailleurs, comment pouvons-nous tirer le meilleur parti possible des initiatives actuelles, telles que le Défi Faim Zéro, lancé par le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies à la Conférence Rio+20 des Nations Unies sur le développement durable  (www.zerohungerchallenge.org) et le Cadre stratégique mondial sur la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition élaboré par le CSA ?

Thème 3:

Pour assurer le déploiement intégral du  Programme  de développement pour l'après-2015 aux échelon mondial, régional ou national, il faut définir des objectifs, des buts et des indicateurs pour aborder les problèmes de la faim, de l'insécurité alimentaire et de la malnutrition.  Un ensemble d'objectifs a été proposé par le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies dans le cadre du Défi Faim zéro:
a.    100 % d’accès à une alimentation adéquate toute l’année
b.    Zéro enfant de moins de deux ans souffrant d’un retard de croissance
c.    Tous les systèmes agro-alimentaires sont durables
d.    100 % d’augmentation de la productivité et des revenus des petits exploitants
e.    Zéro perte ou gaspillage de produits alimentaires

Veuillez nous faire part de vos observations sur cette liste d'objectifs ou formuler vos propres propositions.  Certains de ces objectifs doivent-ils être propres aux pays, ou à l'échelle régionale, plutôt que mondiale? Les objectifs doivent-ils être limités dans le temps?

 

Contributions reçues :

Phyll Buchanan Breastfeeding Network, United Kingdom
10-01-2013

The current Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Framework (1990-2015) helped improve the health of mothers and babies in the UK. This work needs to continue, particularly the focus on early and sustained exclusive breastfeeding with appropriately timed introduction of solid food.  This will help address malnutrition - over and under nutrition and keep a focus on infant mortality which appears to be beginning to increase once again in the UK.

Dear Moderators,

 

Many thanks for providing this opportunity for sharing views and contributing to the post-2015 agenda for hunger, food and nutrition security. Please find below (and also attached) contributions by OHCHR.

 

Theme 1:

 

Challenges:

 

The efforts to eradicate hunger and malnutrition in the pre-2015, including MDGs, have been facing several challenges.

 

Firstly, the challenge to ensure equitable distribution of food has not been tackled sufficiently. In 1974, the Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition recognized that both higher food production and a more equitable and efficient distribution of food as fundamental responsibilities of the Governments. Since then, the world has had enough food to feed its entire population so far, but the efforts have been focused mostly on food production, and not on how to eradicate structural obstacles, such as discrimination and denial of rights, that prevent certain groups of people to access existing food.

 

Secondly, the world has been facing the challenges arising from globalization, including growing demand for resources (such as land, energy, water)  across the borders, intensifying impact of international markets and trades on national food markets, and increasing number and scale of extreme climate events. These are causing food price volatility and harsher competition over resources, resulting in further reducing the capacity of certain groups, smallhold and landless farmers, fishers, pastoralists, urban poor, in accessing and producing foods with disproportionate impacts on women among them. In order to tackle these issues, due attention needs to be paid to strengthening modes of international cooperation and meaningful reform of global governance institutions, processes and policies.

 

Thirdly, re-investment in agriculture has had positive and negative impacts. After the 2007-08 food price crisis, the international community has made steady progress in increasing investment in agriculture, which has been critically needed. On the other hand, a rush of investments in agricultural lands lead to further food and nutrition insecurity of people who lost access to land due to the investments. It would be crucial to ensure that new investments in agriculture are in support of models of agricultural development which improve local food and nutrition security, reduce rural poverty, and preserve the environment and the ecosystems resilience against threats emerging from climate change.

 

Fourthly, the role of private business enterprises and impacts of their activities are intensifying. While States are primarily responsible for achieving the right to food for people in their territories, it is not feasible to achieve food and nutrition security for all without involving the private sector.  While private business enterprises can have a positive and significant role in achieving food and nutrition security, there are concerns over negative impacts certain activities of the private sector actors have had, including on access to resources and productive inputs, food price volatility, food safety, environmental pollution, labour conditions for employers in relevant sectors, violence against people claiming their rights, etc. It would be important to hold business actors account to their human rights responsibilities.

 

Lastly, there has been a general lack of governance, accountability and justice mechanisms at national and international levels through which people can exercise their right to participation and access to justice and remedies in the area of food and nutrition security. Often, people who claimed their right to food or the right to participation faced exclusion, repression, violence and denial of access to justice, freedom of expression and assembly.

 

Opportunities:

While we are facing challenges, there are initiatives and efforts made to tackle such challenges.

  • Efforts have been made to implement the right to food at country level. The right to food is no longer perceived as a rhetoric or theory. Instead, in the past 20 years, concrete efforts to implement it are being made at many countries. For example, the Special Rapporteur on the right to food documented efforts made at country level, both in Africa and Latin America (http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/otherdocuments/note06-septembre2012-en-v2.pdf, and http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/otherdocuments/20120620_briefing_note_05_en.pdf)
  • Reform of the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) in 2009 created a new global centre of governance on food security. It has adopted an innovative participatory process, enabling not only States but also civil society, the private sector and international organizations to participate in deliberation of its strategy, policy discussion, standard setting, etc. The CFS has been addressing several challenges outlined above. For example, it successfully developed the Voluntary Guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food security (adopted in 2012) through such participatory process, and working on principles on responsible agricultural investment, social protection, etc.
  • UN human rights mechanisms have been actively addressing the right to food. In 1999, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights articulated the understanding of the right to food provided under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The Committee has been monitoring regularly the implementation of the right to food at country level through its review of State party reports and constructive dialogue with States. In 2000, the Commission on Human Rights (predecessor of the Human Rights Council) has created a mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. Since then, two mandate holders appointed under this mandate have rigorously analysed the issues relevant to the right to food, and recommended concrete measures necessary for the realization of the right to food.  In 2007, the Human Rights Council held the first thematic special session focusing on the food crisis and the right to food.  In 2012, the Council has set up an Open-Ended Working Group to discuss a declaration on the rights of peasants other people working in rural areas. Civil society organizations are actively using the UN human rights mechanisms for monitoring the right to food at country level.
  • FAO has advanced in their tools and expertise on integrating the right to food into food and nutrition security. For example, in 2004 the FAO Council has adopted the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security, a major tool to operationalize the right to food. FAO has also developed a number of tools and methodologies to implement the right to food.
  • Commitments made at the Rio + 20 conference  reaffirmed “the necessity to promote, enhance and support more sustainable agriculture” as well as “the need to maintain natural ecological processes that support food production systems”, and “resolving to increase sustainable agricultural production” globally (A/RES/66/288, Annex, paras. 110-111). The Outcome document also tasks the CFS in "facilitating country-initiated assessments on sustainable food production and food security” (para. 115). These commitments resonate with their commitment for the right to food.

 

Theme 2:

 

What works:

 

  • Experience shows us that to a large extent the success of efforts to address hunger and food and nutrition insecurity depend on whether such efforts are informed by the view of the victims of hunger and malnutrition.

At the national level, appropriate legal and institutional frameworks are essential to: (i) ensure the adequate participation, particularly, of the most food-insecure segments of the population; (ii) identify, at the earliest stage possible, emerging threats to the right to adequate food, by adequate monitoring systems; (iii) improve coordination between the relevant ministries and between the national and sub-national levels of government; and (iv) improve accountability, through the setting of targets, with measurable indicators, defining the timeframe within which particular objectives should be achieved.

  • National parliaments and parliamentarians together with organized civil society groups, social movements and human rights institutions, have played a fundamental role in placing the right to food on top of political agendas.

 

Experiences:

  •  
  • At the regional level, Latin America and the Caribbean have seen positive progress as a result of regional initiatives based on the right to food, such as the Iniciativa América Latina y Caribe Sin Hambre¸ launched in 2005 with the objective of eradicating hunger in the region by 2025, and the Parliamentarian Front against Hunger in Latin America and the Caribbean (PFH).
  • For country experiences, please see the following briefing notes by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food:

From Charity to Entitlement: Implementing the right to food in Southern and Eastern Africa (http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/otherdocuments/20120620_briefing_note_05_en.pdf)

A Rights Revolution: Implementing the right to food in Latin America and the Caribbean (http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/otherdocuments/note06-septembre2012-en-v2.pdf)

 

Theme 3:

 

The post-2015 development framework should address the following:

 

  • Aligning itself clearly with States’ normative obligations, including those under international human rights law. This will clarify responsibility of States, including measures they are expected to take, and entitlements of people. This would allow measuring not only outcomes but also means. This would strengthen a basis for accountability of States, not only vis-à-vis donors or the international community, but most importantly, vis-à-vis their people based on the rule of law. The methodology and framework developed for human rights indicators (e.g. see: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Indicators/Pages/HRIndicatorsIndex.aspx) allow linking States’ obligations and realization of food and nutrition security for all, through measuring commitments, measures and outcomes. Already some countries are applying these methodologies and framework to their public policies relevant to food and nutrition security (e.g. Nepal, Bolivia, Kenya)
  • Advancing the three closely-related concepts, i.e., equity, equality and non-discrimination. They should be cross-cutting key principles for any goals/agenda for post-2015. This means that any goals or indicators set should allow for disaggregation to reveal exclusion and inequalities. In particular, it is crucial to guarantee gender equality and place the empowerment of women at the centre of food security strategies, primarily in order to guarantee the right to food of women but also because it is the most cost-effective measure to reduce hunger and malnutrition for all.
  • Ensuring free, active and meaningful participation of rights-holders in designing and deciding on objectives, targets, indicators, and means to achieve goals for post-2015 agenda, as well as monitoring and evaluation of its implementation.
  • Recognising responsibilities of both developed and developing countries, in particular in order to address international factors affecting food and nutrition security, including international markets, trades, investments, environmental protection, biodiversity, climate change, use of resources (energy, water, lands, fisheries, seeds, etc), etc. This angle would be relevant to all ZHCs.
  • Addressing roles and responsibilities of the private sector and States’ duties vis-à-vis activities of the private sector, based on the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. The roles and responsibilities of the private sector and corresponding duties of States should be addressed throughout the food chain, including investments in agriculture and in relevant resources (such as land).
  • Goal and time-frame setting which allow a transformative change, which accommodates long-term change (e.g. for full realization of the right to food), and at the same time fostering accountability and progress in the immediate and medium terms.
  • Ensure coherency and coordination among all goals/issues identified for post-2015 agenda. Likewise, ways to facilitate policy coherency and coordination among actors, institutions and mechanisms to implement such goals at international and national levels would need to be considered. (For example, in order to achieve improved governance and apply a rights-based approach, closer interaction and coordination between the CFS and the UN human rights system may be needed at international level.) 

 

As for ZHC, in addition to over-arching issues mentioned above, which would be relevant to all ZHC, more specific feedback on each Zero Hunger Challenge are as follows:

  1. 100% access to adequate food all year round: Understanding of the concepts such as “access” and “adequacy” of food should be gained in line with the human right to food as articulated by the UN human rights mechanisms. For example, “access” is understood not only as physical access, but also as economic access to food (affordability of food). “Adequacy” of food is understood as being nutritious, safe and culturally acceptable. This challenge should be addressed both through enabling people to produce adequate food for their consumption as well as through decent employment and a social protection system which enable people to afford adequate food without compromising the enjoyment of other human rights.
  2. Zero stunted children less than 2 years old: It would be important, as recommended by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, that under-nutrition is addressed together with, micronutrient deficiency and overnutrition by reshaping food systems, and through a life-cycle approach. Therefore, means to achieve this target should be defined narrowly, but allow a comprehensive approach to nutrition.
  3. All food systems are sustainable: Need to address challenges of globalization and responsibilities of developed countries, in particular taking into account sustainability of global as well as national food systems. Also, sustainable food systems should be respectful of human rights of people involved, including labour rights of waged agricultural or fishery workers, access to safe and affordable food by consumers, availability of adequate food for future generations, rights of indigenous peoples to their lands, resources, and culture, etc.
  4. 100% increase in smallholder productivity and income: “Smallholders” should include smallhold (incl. landless) farmers, fishers, pastoralists as well as smallhold food processors.
  5. Zero loss or waste of food: Important to address responsibility of developed countries (e.g. food waste at consumption level in developed countries), as well as developing countries.

 

 

Theme 1:

 

What do you see as the key lessons learned during the current Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Framework (1990-2015), in particular in relation to the MDGs of relevance to hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition?

 

Over the years development approaches have gone through several phases affecting operating methods and the types of planned and implemented interventions.

 

Food security, agriculture and rural development are no exception.

 

Recently, to improve alignment with the strategies and programmes of partner countries, national level participation and sector programmes has been encouraged; these programmes include different types of interventions such as initiatives for public aid for development, private investment, national and local interventions, etc. (e.g. the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Programme - CAADP).

 

Particular attention has been dedicated to strengthening institutions in order to guarantee programmes’  sustainability and ownership..

 

Furthermore, in order to be effective, aid for food security, agriculture and rural development must take the sector’s specifics into account:

 

• the central importance of gender issues (the majority of small subsistence farmers are women);

 

• the key role of the private sector and civil society;

 

• the importance of non-renewable natural resources (water, soil, biodiversity, climate, etc.) and frameworks regulating how they are managed;

 

• Inter-sectorial nature of the issue that involves different types of policies, competences and actors (e.g. energy, health, etc.);

 

• the local scope of problems, risks and opportunities (e.g. environmental, economic, social, etc.);

 

• the value of territorial and decentralized cooperation and the promotion of development programmes based on the participation of local community and grass-root organisations.

 

Some of the key lessons could be so summarised:

 

1. There is a strong interdependency among the MDGs. The multifacets/ sectorial dimension of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition imposes to tackle at the same time several causes and determinants, hence MDGs (e.g., Goals 2, 3, 7 and 8). On the other hand, fighting hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition is critical, for example, to reduce under-five mortality rates (Goal 4);

 

2. It is not always easy to translate the broad MDGs into action, notably as far as priority setting, specific patterns and determinants, division of labour and resources among Ministries and institutions are concerned. An example could be provided by the limited attention paid in some countries to pastoral, fishery and forestry issues in spite of their importance to several communities and to the national economy and welfare;

 

3. In such regard and considering the specificity of the agricultural sector, sound Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers helped in defining priorities and specific plans of action to achieve the MDGs which is, hence, not only a technical but also a key political exercise. Under this internationally shared framework, it was possible to convey national efforts to achieve common goals and to compare results;

 

4. The MDGs should reflect with clearer emphasis the strong association between hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition, on one side, and natural resources management, economic and socio-cultural issues, on the other.

 

What do you consider the main challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in the coming years?

 

In order to achieve the food and nutrition security objectives there many interconnected challenges and opportunities.

 

Main challenges:

 

• Rapid deterioration of natural resources, in particular water and land fertility, fisheries and forests

 

• Rapid population growth

 

• Climate change and its effect on traditional agricultural systems

 

• Inter-sectorial nature of the issue

 

• Need to develop and adopt more effective policies at global, national and community level

 

• Local scope of problems, risks and opportunities

 

• Possible inequities in the access to land and water

 

• Increased prices of oil products and their effects on the cost of and on the demand for agricultural inputs (e.g.,  biofuels)

 

• Price volatility of agricultural products

 

Main opportunities:

 

• Growing demand for agricultural, livestock and fishery products

 

• Food security continues to be high up in the political and development agenda with high concern from civil society and media

 

• New investments in policy research and in technologies with revised approach to innovation systems

 

• Clear resilience shown by many traditional, mixed and semi intensive farming systems against all the odds and in spite of limited support from some national governments

 

• Better understanding of broader action frameworks such as: strong interdependence between emergency, recovery and development; need for effective inter-sectorial collaboration and coordination; importance of processing and marketing, of farming system evolution and of interdependence between the public and the private sector in agriculture and rural development

 

• Improved governance at the  international level

 

• Ongoing Reform processes of major International organisations (such as:

FAO,

CFS, CGIAR), which will improve coordination , for example within the UN Rome

-

based food agencies

 

• In some countries, strengthened organisations of smallholder family farmers

 

• Economic growth and new market developments linked to the urban/rural dynamics

 

Theme 2:

 

What works best? Drawing on existing knowledge, please tell us how we should go about addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on. Provide us with your own experiences and insights.  For example, how important are questions of improved governance, rights-based approaches, accountability and political commitment in achieving food and nutrition security?

 

We believe four issues are critical:

 

1. there is the need to translate the vast amount of knowledge and experience into practical, science-based, shared solutions and actions;

 

2. governance and equity issues need to be properly addressed by regional and national policies;

 

3. ownership of the whole process from national authorities who, on their turn, have the responsibility to involve and to adapt the policies to the different communities/ key actors (e.g., women, small scale farmers, pastoralists, commercial sector)

 

4. development rhetoric, therefore ambitious goals and objectives, should be avoided as much as possible in favour of feasible and tangible results.

 

Furthermore, how could we best draw upon current initiatives, including the Zero Hunger Challenge, launched by the UN Secretary General at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (www.zerohungerchallenge.org [1]), and the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition elaborated by the CFS?

 

The Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition elaborated by the CFS provides a comprehensive policy framework for coordination and harmonisation of policies and intervention at all levels, where the CFS provides the global forum for improving mutual understanding and collaboration between different

stakeholders: Governments, International Organisations, Farmers Organisations, CSOs, Research & Education, etc. In our view the work of the CFS on F&NS should be further supported and continued.

 

The Zero Hunger Challenge provides an overarching international agenda for action, encompassing objectives for developing, emerging and developed countries. We value the approach of merging development objectives with the objectives of sustainability. Another strength is its simplicity to understand and to communicate.

 

Theme 3:

 

For the Post-2015 Global Development Framework to be complete, global (and regional or national) objectives, targets and indicators will be identified towards tackling hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.  A set of objectives has been put forward by the UN Secretary-General under Zero Hunger Challenge

(ZHC):

 

a. 100% access to adequate food all year round

b. Zero stunted children less than 2 years old

c. All food systems are sustainable

d. 100% increase in smallholder productivity and income.

e. Zero loss or waste of food.

 

Please provide us with your feedback on the above list of objectives – or provide your own proposals.  Should some objectives be country-specific, or regional, rather than global? Should the objectives be time-bound?

 

We consider the objectives set out in the Zero Hunger Challenge initiatives important for achieving global food security. These are at the same time ambitious and concrete; one could dispute about our current capacity to define an appropriate set of indicators for monitoring progress towards their achievement; nevertheless we consider that these objectives provide the direction for the required changes in order to achieve sustainable global food security and nutrition. Their quantitative dimension should be carefully articulated at the country and sub-country level to show the intensity of the required changes. The time horizon should be country specific and set according to the intensity of the change needed.

 

 

 

Elaine Geyer-Allely WWF International, Switzerland
10-01-2013

As outlined in the UN Secretary General’s Zero Hunger Challenge, eliminating hunger and achieving universal food security requires a range of measures and investments.  WWF’s contribution to the consultation on Hunger, Food and Nutrition Security addresses just one element of that challenge: protecting and enhancing the ability of the natural world to supply a growing human population with a nutritious, sufficient and diverse food supply.   Please see the attached paper for responses under Themes 1 and 3.

Carol Bartle Te Puawaitanga Ki Otautahi Trust , New Zealand
10-01-2013

Please find attached my submission for the e-Consultation on Hunger, Food and Nutrition Security.

 

Best Wishes

Carol Bartle

Maternal, infant and young child health promoter/educator

Coordinator: Canterbury Breastfeeding Advocacy Service

Te Puawaitanga Ki Otautahi Trust

153 Gilberthorpes Road

Hornby

Christchurch 8042

New Zealand 

See the attachment: MDG Submission January 2013.pdf
Nathalie van Haren Both ENDS, Netherlands
10-01-2013

Theme 1: The most important challenge towards achieving food and nutrition security is the issue of access to and control over land and water. Secure tenure rights to land will contribute to fullfill the human right to food as women producers, small-scale farmers, forest people will be able to grow what they need to feed for their families. In addition, secure tenure rights to land will allow people to make long term investments in the land, in trees and in the soils, in agro-ecology.

 

Theme 2: The voluntary guidelines for the responsible governance of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food security (VGs) that were adopted by the UN CFS were developed in a very participatory way and can count on broad support amongst civil society.  However, these  guidelines should not remain a beautiful paper solution, but will need to be implemented. Therefore, the SDGs should make a reference to the VGs.

 

Theme 3: There should be specific targets on:

 

- respect, protect and support the right to food

- implementation of the VGs

- participation of local people in policy processes affecting their right to food

- promote and invest in agro-ecology

Laura Ciacci Slow Food, Italy
10-01-2013

Please find below and enclosed Slow Food's contribution to the Consultation on Hunger, Food and Nutrition Security:

 

Introduction

 

Slow Food is a member of the Italian coordinating committee for the Global Coalition Against Poverty (GCAP), which actively participates in the Beyond 2015 international campaign coordinated by Concord, which hosts the international and European secretariat. In particular, as GCAP Italia we are part of the European Task Force, and within it, the leaders of the thematic working group on “economy, trade, finance, production and consumption”. We are also leading and implementing a broad national consultation that will involve institutions and civil society and allow participation in the international debate through the construction of a national position.

 

Theme 1

 

 For the first time in human history, the Millennium Development Goals represented a global desire to fight hunger and poverty through an integrated approach. The underlying concept is that the goals cannot be reached individually, but must be all reached together, because they cannot be separated from each other. In fact, wherever results have been seen, wherever visible advancements have been made in improving the overall lives of populations, government plans have integrated interventions in the fight against hunger, maternal and child health, the fight against pandemics, environmental protection, and so on.

 

Now, however, it is necessary not just to renew the commitments, moving the deadline by which the goals must be reached, but to reinforce the goals themselves. If we think specifically about the objectives relating to hunger, food security and malnutrition, it is the global food system that must be changed, as it is blocking the achievement of the goals. This is and must remain the primary objective, including in post-2015 developments. At Rio+20 it was confirmed that we cannot talk about development without first resolving world hunger. The central role of food must be the point of departure for a new form of politics, for a new economy and new social relationships. The central role of food implies the belief that the right to food is the primary right of humanity—ensuring not only human life but also that of the whole planet.

 

Among the main challenges and opportunities in making the objective of wiping out hunger a reality is the assumption of certain obligations for states, according to what is already contained in the definition of the right to food set out by the High Commissioner for Human Rights:

 

 - the obligation to respect, meaning to refrain from interfering with the means of subsistence of their citizens and their capacity to provide for themselves.

 

- the obligation to protect, implying the constitution of a system of rules on food safety, environmental protection and land ownership.

 

- the obligation to fulfil, implementing suitable policies to ensure that the weakest have access to resources or, in extreme cases, providing direct assistance to at least allow freedom from hunger.

 

The first obligation alone would suffice to reveal the harmfulness of the industrial food system determined over the past 60 years by the international organization of markets. For Slow Food and Terra Madre, this obligation concerns respect for traditional, sustainable forms of agriculture, the only ones that have always protected agrobiodiversity, resources and cultural diversities. Their standard-bearers are small-scale food producers, women, the elderly and indigenous peoples.

 

In addition, it has to be considered that neither innovation and new technologies in themselves nor GMOs have proved to be the solution to fight hunger. We also don’t share the belief of those claiming that food production must be increased massively to solve the hunger problem. Given that one third of the food produced is lost or wasted, it is not necessary to stress our planet earth further but rather to be able to apply alternative sustainable models in the production and in the supply chain.

 

These elements are fundamental to us and must be incorporated in the post-2015 challenges and opportunities. They must be included in the global objective of reforming the production and consumption systems through the inclusion of incentives that switch from economic profit to universal well-being.

 

See the attachment: ConsultationFAO_Slow Food
Richie Alford Send a Cow, United Kingdom
10-01-2013

Context - the issue is not about food production - globally there is enough food available for 12 billion people to eat today - so the issue is more of distribution.  In this distribution, the issue is about power and access.  Today more people are overweight and obese, rather than hungry - so again the issue is not solely limited to one facet it is multi-faceted.  Clearly it is important to worry about the hungry and ensure global systems care for them; but there is a growing cost to society in treating the consequences of over-eating and obesity as well which must not be forgotten.

 

Theme 1 - the MDGs have been a clumsy way of setting development targets.  An imposed global target leads to bad dvelopment; doing the thing the wrong way to get the right result (short-term fixes over permanent solutions).  Targets need to contain social and environmental considerations and fit the context of a nation or region, and cannot work well from a global perspective. 

 

Theme 2 - Food Sovereignty as a framework marks the way forward from where we are now.  The world knows how to build a suitable food production system and it is set out in the ISTAAD report, that has been conveniently ignored, by those who should take notice, for too long.

 

Theme 3 - The four goals of the Zero Hunger Challenge (A, B C and E) are clear and understandable.  Goal D doesn't make any sense as written as there are too many implicit variables within it.  "80% food produced by smallholders" is clearer.

 

For the Zero Hunger challenge to be truly global, the counterpoint to hunger needs to be incorporated.  For example target B ought to include and "Zero obese children under the age of five years old".

Jodine Chase Breastfeeding Action Committee of Edmonton, Canada
10-01-2013

This letter is to support the many contributions you have received calling for BREASTFEEDING to be specifically mentioned in the new MDGs. It is not necessary for me to repeat the compelling arguments made by other experts - my intent in writing is to add my voice to their call. Thank you.

 

Jodine Chase

breastfeeding advocate

member, Breastfeeding Action Committee of Edmonton (BACE)

10-01-2013

Theme 2: What works best?

 

Drawing on existing knowledge, please tell us how we should go about addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on. Provide us with your own experiences and insights.

 

Organization: Concern Worldwide (Ethiopia office)

 

Author of submission:

 

  • Adèle Fox

 

Below are several key learnings from our project integrating Infant and Young Child Feeding and the Productive Safety Net Programme in Ethiopia:

 

Two years ago, Concern Worldwide documented the poor nutritional situation in Ethiopia and the multiple obstacles hampering previous efforts to improve it. It concluded that a multi-sectoral approach to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and to increase access to food were among the responses needed. In 2010, the IYCF – Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) project was launched as a pilot multi-sectoral approach aimed at reducing malnutrition in Dessie Zuria. It targeted poor households enrolled in the existing PSNP as well as the general population and addresses both the direct and root causes of malnutrition. The project aimed to develop an effective, sustainable and scalable model to improve IYCF practices in the most vulnerable households. The final results have been impressive, with large improvements in IYCF practices and a positive response from the communities and stakeholders involved in the project.

 

A number of factors contributed to the success of the IYCF – PSNP project. The project took a multi-sectoral approach, involving actors across a wide range of groups and sectors. It went beyond simply behaviour change communication, targeting the enabling environment as well as social norms, and involving the community at large. The project used multiple platforms and approaches to disseminate messages, and used a targeted approach to behaviour change, basing project activities and messages on formative research and emphasizing simple, do-able actions rather than health education messages.

 

  • Multisectoral approach: This project engaged actors from a range of sectors, including agriculture, education, women’s affairs, and health. This aspect was described as a key strength of the project, with each sector working together towards a common purpose, leading to increased ownership and accountability. A multi-sectoral approach also provides greater opportunities for engaging with communities. Cooking demonstrations, school clubs, and agricultural support were all combined to provide an overall aim of preventing malnutrition among children.

 

  • A multi-level approach: As well as working across sectors, the project also created strong links between woreda, kebele and community levels through a cascading style of training and through the continued provision of support and supervision.

 

  • A social and behavioural change approach: Early assessments showed that simply providing behaviour change communication alone was unlikely to be effective, given widespread food insecurity and other barriers to behaviour change. This project went beyond simply carrying out BCC, to influencing the community and social norms as a whole, as well as addressing barriers to practicing recommended IYCF behaviours.
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The results of this project suggest that it is effectively fostering behaviour change, and  increasing levels of awareness among woreda officials, kebele level leaders and community members alike. It has differed from previous efforts to reduce malnutrition because it has shown people how to make simple, practical changes and reinforced the messages through a multitude of actors, contact points and methods, vastly increasing the likelihood of behaviour change. It is also focused on prevention of malnutrition rather than cure.

 

The approach has been able to reach a large number of people who are widely dispersed over challenging terrain. Channelling activities through the PSNP creates additional contact points and ensures targeting of the poorest households.